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U of A BIOL 2013 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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Exam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 10 Lecture 1 (January 14) I. science: the study of the natural world A. scientific method: 1. observe 2. hypothesis 3. test and modify 4. when consistent it becomes a theory a) theory: a framework within which observations are plained and predications are made (disprove with more experiments) II. Ockham”s Razor: the simplest theory is probably the correct one(bases off the least amount of assumptions) III. microbiology: the study of organisms too small to see with the naked eye A. bacteriology: bacteria B. mycology: fungi C. algology: algae D. protozoology: protozoan E. virology: viruses IV. microbes in life A. a few are pathogenic B. decomposers C. photosynthesize D. produce industrial chemicals E. ferment food F. products in disease treatment (E. coli makes insulin) V. history A. 1665: Hooke observed 1st cell B. 1673: 1st microbes observed C. 1857: fermentation D. 1861: disproved spontaneous generation E. 1864: pasteurization Lecture 2 (January 16) VI. fermentation and pasteurization A. fermentation: the conversion of sugar to alcohol lo make beer and wine B. pschyophiles: microorganisms that can grow between -5-20 C (responsible for food spoilage) C. pasteurization: the application of high heat for a short time 1. TB is transferred through unpasteurized milk (caused by mycobacterium) 2. 1st pasteurization of grape juice 1869 VII.Pasteur was lucky because there were no endospores in the broth A. endospore: can resist high temp/pressure GradeBuddy BIOL 2013Lecture 3 and 4 (January 19) VIII.Koch’s Postulates: use this method to see if a certain microorganism causes a diseaseA. same pathogen must be present in every caseB. isolated from host and grown in pure cultureC. pathogen must cause disease in healthy organismD. pathogen must be isolated from healthy organism and be the same as original E. exceptions1. viruses, rickettsia, syphilis, leprosy (some can’t grow in selected media)2. humans as the only test host has ethical problemsIX. Germ Theory of DiseaseA. 1876: Robert Koch proved that a bacterium causes anthrax and proved Koch’s postulate X. Vaccination (1796: Edward Jenner)A. gave a person cowpox to protect them from small pox B. to produce immunity1. CMI: cell mediated2. HI: humoralXI. types of microorganismsA. bacteria B. archaea1. hyperthemophiles: can withstand a high salt concentrationC. fungi D. protozoaE. algaeF. virusesG. multicellular animal parasitesXII. 4 groups of microorganisms A. psychrolphiles(-5-20C)B. mesophiels(20-50C)1. most important because they live within a human temp (37C)C. thermophiles (50-80)D. hyperthermophiles(80+C)XIII.naming microorganismsA. genus and specific epithetB. 1st is upper cased and the second word in lower cased; they are both underlinedLecture 5 (January 23)XIV.endosymbiotic theory: Lynn MargulisA. larger bacteria engulfed smaller bacteria; these smaller bacteria may be our present day mitochondria and chloroplastsXV. shapes and arrangements of prokaryotic cells A. cocci1. 2 cocci: diplococci 2. 4 cocci (squares): tetrad 3. cube cocci: sarcinae4. clumped cocci: staphylococci (common)5. chain cocci: streptococci (common)B. bacillus1. single bacillus (common)2. 2 bacillus: diplobacillus3. chain bacillus: streptobacillus (common)4. clumped bacillus: coccobacillus C. spirochetes1. vibrio (semicircle)2. spirillum (spiral)3. spirochete (wavy)D. star and rectangular shapes are rareXVI.characteristics of microbial groupsA. shapes1. bacillus2. coccus3. spiral (spirillum, vibrio, spirochete)B. arrangements1. diplo: 22. staphylo: clumped3. strepto: chainsC. motility 1. ability to move via flagellum2. chemotaxis: they either move to get food or move away from dangerD. staining1. gram staininga) +: red/pinkb) -: purple/blueE. oxygen requirements1. aerobic: requires oxygen (top)2. anaerobic: no oxygen required (bottum)3. facultative/microaerophilic: can grow with little oxygen (middle)Lecture 6 (January 26) XVII.prokaryote cell A. pilus: sex pili are used for conjunctionB. fimbria:used for attachmentC. capsule: protection/attachmetn (polysaccaride)D. plasmid: genetic material (double stranded DNA)1. helpful in transferring bacterial resistance from 1 generation to another through conjunctionE. flagellum: motility1. peritrichus: all over2. monotrichous: just one3. lophotrichous: many in 1 place4. amphitrichus: 1 on each sideF. cytoplasm: “guts of cell”G. nucleoid: bacterial chromosome1. no membrane2. haploid 3. double stranded DNA4. bacteria cells divide by binary fission H. ribosomes: protein synthesisI. cell wall: shapes and prevents osmotic lysis (keeps, preserves, protects cell)1. gram+: high peptidoglycan and teichoic acid2. gram-:low peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide(LPS)3. penicillin works on cell walls so it can’t kill mycoplasma J. plasma membrane: selectively permeable1. phospholipids bilayer (chromatophes/thylakoids-photosynthetic pigment)a) polar head (hydrophilic)b) nonpolar tail (hydrophobic)2. fluid mosaic modela) viscous like olive oil b) proteins move to functionc) phospholipids rotate and move laterally Lecture 7 (January 28)XVIII.diffusion/osmosisA. diffusion: movement of a solute from high concentration to low concentration B. facilitated diffusion: solute combines with transporter proteinC. osmosis: movement of water from high concentration to low concentrationD. osmotic pressure: the pressure needed to stop the movement of water across membraneXIX.solutionsA. isotonic: no net movement B. hypertonic: more solute on the outside then inside (cell shrinks)C. hypotonic: more solute on the inside then outside (cell bursts)XX.active transportA. active transport: requires transporter protein and ATPB. group translocation: requires transporter protein and PEP (phosphoenol pyruvate)Lecture 8 (January 30)XXI.endospores: most resistant form of lifeA. sporulation: important for survival; production of sporesB. resistance factors1. high temp2. toxic chemicals3. radiation4. desiccation (absolute)5. low temp (absolute)C. main ones that produce endospores1. Bacillus (aerobic)a) Bacillus anthraces (anthrax/wool sorter’s disease)2. Clostridium (anaerobic)a) Clostridium botulinum (botulism)(1) found in canned food (2) neurotoxin causes lack of muscle contraction (flaccid paralysis)(3) Botox and SIDS (kids under 1 can’t have honey because their bodies can’t kill endospores yet)b) Clostridium tentani (tetanus)(1) endospores get into puncture wounds (2) tetanospasmin cause


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