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SC CLAS 220 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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Clas 220 Exam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 7Lecture 1 Myth- an authoritative story about the world, accepted with in a given community as true.The truths involved can be at all levels: spiritual, cosmological, political, social, psychologicalWhether the stories are true or not, in a factual sense, they “work” as a way of understanding the worldRitual- Regularly reoccurring action, Done for symbolic value, Special places, times, words, objects, people, Set apart from everyday lifeWeddings, Thanksgiving, Initiation, The Last SupperMyth + Ritual = religion Women Status of men  women are far from equal, Married right after puberty (13)  men married around 26, Not citizens Can’t own property, If a man has no sons daughter is to marry closest male relative, Can never be without a chaperone, In well of homes slaves did the housework, but women weaved, Exception for religious rituals, priestessesGODDESSESHERA Wife and sister of ZeusHora- seasonsMarriage/ readiness formarriageSeducing husband and seeking vengeances on his infidelities (and to his other children)Mother of Ares, Hephaetus and minor deitiesWorshiped especially in Argos Demeter Mother goddess (meter)“grain mother”Grain and harvestDaughter= Persephone (queen of the underworld)Myth of the seasonsWorshipped in secret festivals (all women’s) Athena Daughter of Zeus and Metis (cunning)Will bear child more powerful than ZeusBorn from Zeus’s head (swallowed afly)Goddesses of Athens – Victory and strategy in warVirgin of cunningOlive tree/ close to Odysseus Artemis Twin sisterof ApolloAnimals and hunting -(hunts withnymphs)Goddess of sacrificeAssociated with the moonInitiation in lives of young women (menstruation, childbirth) VirginAphrodite Daughter of ZeusBorn from genitals disposed inDesire and sexualityWomanly perfection of beautyJudgment of Paris- (Hera, Athena, andthe sea Aphrodite)Hestia Sister to Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Hades, Demeter Goddess ofhearthVirgin Hearth of Delphi burns eternally for allGreeksLittle Myth- domesticOlumpian Lecture 2 Polytheism Vs. Monotheism, - Monotheistic: one god, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, see their god as omniscient omnipotent and good abstract maybe representable- Polytheism: many gods, Greece, Roman, Hinduism, see the work as filled with divine forces of various kinds, not all benevolent, potentially competing with each other, and potentially limitless, different gods have different functions, more human in behavior and representation of the gods are important. o Sacrifice- animals must consent to sacrifice – grill thigh bones with fat GODS Gain and Uranus mother and father of SkyGaia born in Chaos- creates Uranus as her husbandBoth to 12 titianYoungest-Cronus becomes fathers rival and castrateshimHis genitals become Aphrodite Cronos and RheaEats his children as to not repeat hisfathers mistakeRhea saves Zeus (Youngest)- feeds him stoneZeus taken to Crete- Croybantes sings so father wont hear him cryZeus returns and saves hissiblingsRhea= great mother goddess (Cybele)Worshipped by ecstatic dancers Zeus King of gods- father and hero of godsClouds, thunder, lightningOaths, council, Victory, and JusticeHosts and guestsWorshipped everywhere especially Olympia and DodonaHeavens Poseidon Brother of Zeus and HeraGod of Sea (fisherman)Earthquakes, horses, bullsDivides universe with brothers Archenemy of OdyssuesDionysus Son of Zeus and mortal Semele- born from Zeus’s thigh – Hera had Semale killed god of wine and its consequences Young, slightly effeminate—powerfulGood- Moderate drinking, theater Bad-maenads (women whoteat animals with hands)Myths about humans who deny himApollo Son of Zeus and mortal Leto- Artemis twinyoung masculinity, god of transition of manhoodSometimes connected to the sunHunting, archery, plagues, and healing musicProphecy—especially Delphihostile to Greeks in HomeeAres Son of Zeus and Heragod of war—going berserkViolent, moods, cowardly, whinyFew myths and little ritualDark side of victoryHephaestus Son of Hera Blacksmith Has a limp so is made fun of for his imperfectionMarried to Aphrodite or CharisAthens—near rape of Athena (birthof Erichthonius)from sperm on groundMakes armor for Achilles in IliadIsland of LemonsaHermes Son of Zeus and MaiaMessenger, trickster, thief, herdsmenSteals Apollo’s cattleof first day of lifeBetween life and death – god of boundaries Between properties) Hermes-fencepost erect on top)Adolescent masculinity Hades King of the underworldGroom of PersephoneAssociated with wealth (mineral, vegetal)Rarely spoken of- sacrifice withface avertedGod of deathand decay To Demeter seasons – Persephone is Hades wife for ¼ of the year (winter) Persephone also Kore, “the Maiden” - she collects flowers with her friends (agriculture vs. gathering)  ground opens and she gets sent to the underworld to get married marriage destroys one family as it creates another  teachers triptoemus how to grow grainThesmophoria- woman festivalLecture 3Hero= 1. Unseasonal (die too young)  compared to flowers—beautiful for a short time then fade and disappear  also living way too long (etuis) 2. Extreme – Achilles (bravest, strongest, etc.) kill children to get back at husband, kill father marry mother, etc. 3. Antagonistic relationship with a god – special relationship with a god (god hates hero and tracks him down) Hercules (child of Zeus and mortal) – Hera (fame of Hera)—Achilles –Apollo = very similar Olbios- happy, blessed (a man is not happy or blessed until hes had a good death)Kleos—fame, songs or stories about that fame, worshipped as heroPhilostratus, Heroikos: Protesilaus was a young man, just married, who is the first Greek soldier off the ships at Troy, and the first to die. Buried in a garden (with magical properties) Comes back to life in garden—practices running and other sports (leaves footsteps)—gives advise to athletes and young lovers and helps those afflicted with certain diseases—when an adulteress and her lover came to the tomb, he made a dog bite her and chase her away Hero cult 1. It’s deeply local. Every city, neighborhood, village, forest, mountain, and stream have its own hero 2. Every character, male, female, young or old, in Greek literature=, is potentially a hero. But there would have been thousands more heroes we don’t know about. 3. Hero-cult is based around the body of the hero, or parts thereof, buried in the local ground in a tomb that


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