VCU ARTH 103 - Final Exam Study Guide (7 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



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ARTH 103 1nd Edition Exam 4 Study Guide Lectures 10 12 Chapter Summaries Ch 15 Romanesque Art The children of aristocratic families joined religious orders to help forge links between monastic communities and the elite Crusades First Crusade directed by Pope Urban II and captured Jerusalem in 1099 Second Crusade directed by St Bernard and led by France and Germany accomplished nothing Third Crusade led by German French and English kings as a rebellion when the Muslim leader Saladin captured back Jerusalem Crusades helped stimulate trade with the Westerns and Muslims which led to an increase of urban societies Romanesque Art Romanesque means in the Roman manner coined to describe early medieval European church architecture Church of Sant Vincenc a great example of one of the First Romanesque o To strengthen the walls and vaults the masons added vertical bands of masonry strip buttresses o Transverse arch supporting arch which runs across the vault from side to side dividing the bays Pilgrimage Pilgrims would journey across Europe to reach holy destinations and they would encounter bad food poisoned water and dishonest innkeepers o The priest Aymery Picaud wrote a guidebook for pilgrims on their way to these holy sites o Guidebook provided info on local customs safety of food and drinking water and useful phrases in the common language used The Church decided that every altar require a relic this caused relics to multiply because of divvying up Saints bodies Theophilus is the pseudonym used by a monk who wrote a book during the first half of the 12th century on the practice of artistic craft The Cathedral of St Mary of the Assumption in Pisa Designed as a cruciform basilica by the builder Busketos Contained a campanile a free standing bell tower now known as the Leaning Tower of Pisa The Benedictine Church of San Clemente in Rome Spolia reused from ancient Roman buildings Baldachin a canopy suspended over a sacred space also called a ciborium symbolized the Holy Sepulcher covers the main altar in the apse The apse is decorated with marble revetment on the curving walls and mosaic in the semidome o Mosaics attempt to recapture the past glory portraying the trees and rivers of paradise Elements of Architecture Tympanum a hieraratically scaled image of abstract grandeur such as Christ in Majesty or Christ presiding over the Last Judgment Archivolts Curved moldings composed of the wedge shape stone voussoirs of the arch Jambs both sides of an entrance Christ on the Cross Majestat Batillo Presents a clothed triumphant Christ rather than the seminude figure Clothing represents his kingship and his robe is meant to resemble Arabic script a reminder that silks from Islamic Spain were highly prized in Europe at this time Ch 16 Gothic Art Cathedrals were being built at a fast pace during this time Gothic style started in France during the time of King Louis VII and Philip Augustus Stained Glass Windows Glass is made by bringing sand and ash to a molten state and then staining it with color through the addition of metallic oxides Then it was blown and flattened into sheets A cartoon a full scale drawing used as a guide as to where to cut the glass Done on an hot iron that would crack the glass into a rough approximation that could be refined by chipping away at the edges carefully with an iron tool called grozing to achieve the precise shape needed Gothic Churches Stone masons were in charge of all church construction in the Middle Ages Triforium Arcaded wall passageway Lancets tall openings with pointed tops Plate tracery holes are cut into the stone wall and nearly half the wall surface is filled with stained glass Chartres Cathedral has most of its stained glass windows unusual for French Gothic Cathedral Architects in Germany created the hall church a type of open light filled interior space that appeared in Europe in the early Middle Ages the Church of St Elizabeth of Hungary is an example of this Important Works of Art Romanesque Art Reliquary Statue of St Foy gilding on wood with gems Contains part of St Foy s skull believed to have healing powers A martyred Saint as a child A neighboring monastery stole the relic and claimed that St Foy appeared saying that she d rather be at the neighboring monastery Reliquaries often portray what is contained inside Reconstruction drawing of the Cathedral of St James Built to hold the relic of St James who is considered to be the brother of Christ St James is beheaded in Jerusalem o Hundreds of years later his skeleton is washed up on the shores of Compostela o A shepherd found the skeleton by being led by a bright star Cathedral is huge to accommodate the overwhelming amount of pilgrims Plan of Santiago de Compostela Ambulatory walkway that goes around the perimeter of the Church o Made to view relics around the church and not to disrupt service Small chapels contained relics Transcept contains a second entrance for pilgrims Plan of Abbey Church of Notre Dame Multiple buildings surrounded a cloister a covered walkway Separate buildings dedicated to the convent s trade Church for the religious leaders that lived there Nave of Durham Cathedral Geometric patterns all over the columns and was painted 3 Part elevation Arcade gallery clerestory Cathedral Complex Pisa Has Byzantine elements Pisa under Islamic control until the 11th century Relatively short buildings and contain heavy decoration within Does not contain stone vaulting South Portal and Porch Priory Church of Saint Pierre Pilgrimage entrances are always located on the South or North faces of a church Church is dedicated to St Peter Carvings are inspired by Islamic art West Portal from the Cathedral of Saint Lazare Representation from the Book of Revelations especially the Last Judgment Portals were meant to instill fear so pilgrims would repent for their sins Christ is surrounded by a mandorla all over body halo Inscription is the artist s name Gislebertus it was uncommon for artists to inscribe their name o Theory is that then name inscribed is a wealthy man who funded the project Christ in Majesty Abstract style closely resembles the style portrayed in illustrated art Virgin and Child in Majesty Christ is seated in the Virgin s lap this is known as Sedes Sapientiae translates in Throne of Wisdom During this period the Virgin was revered as a nurturing and merciful morhter Functioned as a container for holy relics Bishop Odo blessing the Feast Tapestry is 230 ft long Feast is a result of a


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