UNT PSYC 4520 - The Cognitive Approach (14 pages)

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The Cognitive Approach

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The Cognitive Approach


An overview of the cognitive approach

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Lecture Note
University of North Texas
Psyc 4520 - Personality
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PSYC 4520 1st Edition Lecture 29 Outline of Last Lecture I Individual Differences in Gender Role Behavior A Traditional gender roles and learning II Masculinity Femininity A Masculinity and femininity B Congruence model C Masculinity model D Androgyny model III Gender Type and Psychological Well Being A Support for the different models IV Gender Type and Interpersonal Relationships A Character sketches V Unmitigated Communion A Unmitigated communion VI Observational Learning of Aggression A Learning aggression through observation B Bandura s four step model VII Mass Media Aggression and Aggressive Behavior A Studies B Violent video games VIII Learned Helplessness These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute A Learned helplessness B Learning to be helpless C Learned helplessness in humans IX Some Applications of Learned Helplessness A The elderly B Depression X Locus of Control A Locus of control B Locus of control and well being C Locus of control and health Outline of Current Lecture I Introduction A The cognitive approach II Personal Construct Theory A Personal construct theory B Psychological problems III Cognitive Personality Variables A Cognitive personality variables B Schemas IV Cognitive Representations of the Self A Cognitive representations of the self B Self schemas C Research on self schemas D Possible selves E Self discrepancies V Application Cognitive Psychotherapy A Cognitive psychotherapy B Rational emotive therapy VI Assessment The Repertory Grid Technique A The Repertory Grid Technique VII Strengths and Criticisms of the Cognitive Approach A Strengths B Criticisms VIII Cognitions and Aggression A Cognitions and aggression B General aggression model C Reactive aggression in boys IX Gender Memory and Self Construal A Gender memory and self construal B Emotional memories C Memories about relationships X Cognitions and Depression A Cognitions and depression B Depressive schemas C Negative cognitive style Current Lecture I Introduction A The cognitive approach i This says that different people have different experiences of the same thing because we all have different ways of processing information Differences in the way we process information lead to different behaviors and personalities II Personal Construct Theory A Personal construct theory i George Kelly the pioneer of the cognitive approach coined the man thescientist view Like scientists we constantly form test hypotheses we want to predict control our lives as much as possible To satisfy this need we use template matching our ideas about the world are similar to transparent templates We place these templates over certain events if they match we retain the templates If they do not we modify them For example you may have formed a hypothesis that your teacher is arrogant When you see him you collect more information and compare it with your hypothesis If it is verified you continue using it If not you replace it with a new one ii Kelly called the cognitive structures we use to interpret predict events personal constructs We all have different constructs and organize them differently These constructs are bipolar we classify objects in an either or fashion within our constructs When I first meet someone I may apply the constructs friendlyunfriendly tall short and intelligent unintelligent in constructing an image of him I may decide that he is friendly tall and intelligent But this does not mean that we see the world as black and white after applying our first construct we often use other bipolar constructs for example after determining that this person is intelligent I may then apply an academically intelligent commonsense intelligent construct to get an even clearer picture of him iii Personal constructs can explain personality I use different constructs than you to form an impression of a person Because I use these same constructs when meeting others I have a characteristic way of interacting with people that is different from yours Thus the relatively stable patterns in our behavior are due to the relatively stable way we construe the world B Psychological problems i Kelly applied his ideas about personality to treating psychological problems He rejected the idea that disorders are caused by past traumatic experiences rather he said people suffer from psychological problems because of defects in their construct systems Well adjusted people constantly update these construct systems while maladjusted people do not ii Kelly placed anxiety at the heart of most psychological problems We are anxious when our personal constructs do not make sense of events in our lives For example an upcoming interview causes more anxiety if you don t know what you will be asked Relationship issues are more unsettling when you don t know why things are going badly or how to put the relationship back on track III Cognitive Personality Variables A Cognitive personality variables i Psychologists have used a black box metaphor to describe the relationship between stimuli and responses In this model features in the environment e g a loud noise cause behaviors e g running away But what happens in the organism between the stimulus and response is unknowable and unknown the black box In contrast the elements between stimulus and response are important to cognitive personality psychologists they have introduced a large number of cognitive variables cognitive affective units to account for individual differences Some of these include goals and values affects expectations and beliefs encodings and competencies self regulatory plans ii Cognitive personality variables are part of a system that links the situations we encounter with our behavior How we react to features in the environment and even whether we notice these features depends on our cognitive structures Once perceived various mental representations e g expectations values and goals interact with each other to determine how we respond to the situation Our behavior can then affect the situation B Schemas i There are individual differences within this cognitive framework because each of us has a different set of mental representations schemas Also how easily we access certain kinds of information stored in memory varies among individuals Thus 2 people often react to the same situation differently IV Cognitive Representations of the Self A Cognitive representations of the self i

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