UNT PSYC 4520 - End of the Behavioral, Social Learning Approach (14 pages)

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End of the Behavioral, Social Learning Approach

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End of the Behavioral, Social Learning Approach


An end to the behavioral, social learning approach

Lecture number:
Lecture Note
University of North Texas
Psyc 4520 - Personality
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PSYC 4520 1st Edition Lecture 28 Outline of Last Lecture I Application Self Efficacy Therapy A Self efficacy B Expectations C Sources of efficacy expectations D Guided mastery II Assessment Behavior Observation Methods A Behavior as a problem B Direct observation C Self monitoring D Observation by others III Strengths and Criticisms of the Behavioral Social Learning Approach A Strengths B Criticisms Outline of Current Lecture I Individual Differences in Gender Role Behavior A Traditional gender roles and learning II Masculinity Femininity These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute A Masculinity and femininity B Congruence model C Masculinity model D Androgyny model III Gender Type and Psychological Well Being A Support for the different models IV Gender Type and Interpersonal Relationships A Character sketches V Unmitigated Communion A Unmitigated communion VI Observational Learning of Aggression A Learning aggression through observation B Bandura s four step model VII Mass Media Aggression and Aggressive Behavior A Studies B Violent video games VIII Learned Helplessness A Learned helplessness B Learning to be helpless C Learned helplessness in humans IX Some Applications of Learned Helplessness A The elderly B Depression X Locus of Control A Locus of control B Locus of control and well being C Locus of control and health Current Lecture I Individual Differences in Gender Role Behavior A Traditional gender roles and learning i Traditional stereotypes portray men as aggressive independent and unemotional and women as passive dependent and affectionate ii Men and women behave differently for a few reasons While biological differences play a role behaviorists and social learning theorists point to a lifelong process of gender role socialization People acquire maintain gender appropriate behaviors via through operant conditioning and observational learning iii The effects of operant conditioning can be seen when kids act in genderinappropriate ways Boys tease each other for crying playing with dolls girls tease each other for acting like tomboys Boys are rewarded for playing football girls for showing an interest in babies dressing up iv Kids also acquire gender role behaviors via observational learning They learn which behaviors are expected of males females by watching those around them They can then learn which behaviors are more often performed by one gender than by the other For example if dad always fixes a broken appliance kids will conclude that men are rewarded for mechanical behavior but women are not Thus boys are more likely to get involved with these things anticipating rewards than girls v These behaviors are difficult to change even before the child can talk parents interact differently with daughters than they do with sons II Masculinity Femininity A Masculinity and femininity i Psychologists want to describe how people typically act in terms of their gender role behavior They used to call these traits masculinity for men and femininity for women Others want to replace these terms with more specific less emotionally loaded labels agency independence assertiveness control like masculinity and communion attachment cooperation interpersonal connection like femininity ii Early scales to measure the differences in gender role behavior were based on 2 assumptions First masculinity and femininity were assumed to represent 2 extreme positions on a continuum if you were more of one you were less of the other Second the more people s gender role behavior matched the stereotype for their gender the more psychologically healthy they were iii One scale on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory MMPI is the Mf Masculinity Femininity Scale Initially researchers said that scoring too far on the wrong side of this scale for one s gender indicated psychological disturbances There are 3 models that explain the relation between gender type and well being the congruence model masculinity model and androgyny model B Congruence model i This says that masculine men and feminine women are the most welladjusted Society pressures men and women to act in gender appropriate ways if people do not develop the gender type dictated by society they will not be rewarded Society rewards masculine men feminine women while masculine women feminine men face social rejection ridicule C Masculinity model i This says that being masculine is the key to mental health In many ways our society is still geared towards admiring rewarding traits traditionally associated with men Stereotypically men are independent women are dependent Men are achieving powerful women are unassertive conforming Men are leaders women are followers Thus it makes sense that those who fit the masculine role may accomplish more and feel better about themselves than those who do not D Androgyny model i This rejects the notion that masculinity and femininity are opposites on a single continuum Instead they are independent traits people can be high on both traits or on only one or neither As these traits are independent knowing that someone is high or low in masculinity tells us nothing about how feminine that person is ii This challenges the assumption that a person s gender should match his or her gender type Advocates say that the most well adjusted person is both masculine and feminine androgynous People who are only masculine feminine often cannot engage in adaptive behavior a welladjusted person must have the flexibility to engage in masculine behavior when the situation demands and in feminine behavior when it is most appropriate People whose behavioral repertoires lack either masculine or feminine behaviors are ill prepared to respond to many situations iii To measure this psychologists developed a scale People high in masculinity and low in femininity are masculine people high in femininity and low in masculinity are feminine people high in both categories are androgynous people low in both categories are undifferentiated III Gender Type and Psychological Well Being A Support for the different models i Most studies support the masculinity model Because masculine people use direct problem focused strategies they are better able to deal with stressors Also people who possess traditionally masculine attributes achieving athletic powerful also feel good about themselves ii Some studies support the androgyny model but

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