ECU PSYC 1000 - Psychological Disorders (7 pages)

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Psychological Disorders



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PSYC 1000 Lecture 16 Outline of Last Lecture I Test Outline of Current Lecture I Psychological Disorders a A significant dysfunction in an individual s cognitions emotions or behaviors b Mental Illness II ADHD a Impulsivity mixed with Inattention and or hyperactivity Can include distractibility disorganization fidgeting difficulty suppressing impulses and impaired working memory b Deviant c Distressful d Dysfunction e Overdiagnosed f Underdiagnosed III Biopsychosocial and Medical Models a Biological influence b Psychological influences c Social cultural influences d Studies how biological psychological and social cultural factors interact to produce specific psychological disorders IV Classifying Disorders a Diagnose and then treat b Pinel s New Approach c Medical Model d Cultural Influences e Diagnoses create a verbal shorthand for referring to a list of associated symptoms f Diagnoses allow us to statistically study many similar cases learning to predict outcomes g Diagnoses can guide treatment choices h Diagnostic and Statistical Manual V Responsibility for one s actions These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute VI VII VIII a Five Axes of Diagnosis b Critiques with DSM c Vulnerability Factors and Ages Depressive Disorder a Vicious self reinforcing cycle b Depressed mood most of the day and or c Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in activities d Significant increase or decrease in appetite or weight e Insomnia sleeping too much or disrupted sleep f Lethargy or physical agitation g Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day h Worthlessness or excessive inappropriate guilt i Daily problems in thinking concentrating and or making decisions j Recurring thoughts of death and suicide k Per year depressive episodes happen to about 6 percent of men and about 9 percent of women l is more dangerous because of suicide risk m has fewer observable symptoms n is more lasting than a cold and is less likely to go away just with time o is much less contagious p Mood q Evolutionary Perspective r The Brain Mood Disorders a Major depressive disorder MDD is b Stuck in the dark withdrawal c Bipolar d Prevalence and course of depression e Genetic influences on depression f Suicide and self Injury g Negative Moods and Negative thoughts h Cycle Social cognitive Factors a Explanatory Style b Depression association Current Lecture Module 39 Basic Concepts of Psychological Disorders and Mood Disorders I Psychological Disorders a A significant dysfunction in an individual s cognitions emotions or behaviors II III b Mental Illness i Diagnosable illness that affects a person s thinking emotional state and behavior disrupts the person s ability to work carry out daily activities and engage in satisfying relationships ii Diagnosed when 1 There is dysfunction behaviors which are considered maladaptive interfere with one s daily life iii Symptoms and behaviors 1 Distress 2 A disturbance in the psychological biological or developmental process underlying mental functioning ADHD a Impulsivity mixed with Inattention and or hyperactivity Can include distractibility disorganization fidgeting difficulty suppressing impulses and impaired working memory b Deviant i Impulsiveness or restlessness c Distressful d Dysfunction e Overdiagnosed i when the label is applied to children whose behavior may be a function of immaturity culture sleep deprivation or other learning problems f Underdiagnosed i most frequently in girls with the primarily inattentive type of ADHD when children are quietly trying to sustain focus but can t do it Biopsychosocial and Medical Models a Biological influence i Evolution ii Individual genes iii Brain structure and chemistry b Psychological influences i Stress ii Trauma iii Learned helplessness iv Mood related perceptions and memories c Social cultural influences i Roles ii Expectations iii Definitions of normality and disorder IV V d Studies how biological psychological and social cultural factors interact to produce specific psychological disorders Classifying Disorders a Diagnose and then treat i Based on older understanding of psychological disorders treatments have included exorcising evil spirits beatings caging restraint b Pinel s New Approach i Proposed that mental disorders were not caused by demonic possession but by stress and inhumane conditions ii moral treatment involved gentleness nature and social interation c Medical Model i Syphilis 1 Causes mental symptoms by infecting the brain suggested a medical model for mental illness ii Psychopathology 1 Illness of the mind iii Diagnosed 1 Labeled as a collection of symptoms that tend to go together iv Treated 1 Given therapy with a goal of restoring mental health d Cultural Influences i Culture bound syndromes are disorders which only seem to exist within certain cultures they demonstrate how culture can play a role in both causing and defining a disorder e Diagnoses create a verbal shorthand for referring to a list of associated symptoms f Diagnoses allow us to statistically study many similar cases learning to predict outcomes g Diagnoses can guide treatment choices h Diagnostic and Statistical Manual i It s easier to count cases of autism if we have a clear definition ii Versions DSM IV TR DSM V May 2013 iii The DSM is used to justify payment for treatment iv It s consistent with diagnoses used by medical doctors worldwide Responsibility for one s actions a Five Axes of Diagnosis i Axis I 1 Using specifically defined criteria clinicians may select none one or more syndromes VI 2 Clinical Syndrome ii Axis II 1 Clinician may or may not select one of these two conditions 2 Personality disorder or mental retardation intellectual developmental disorder iii Axis III 1 General medical condition diabetes arthritis or hypertension iv Axis IV 1 Psychosocial or Environmental problems school or housing issues v Axis V 1 Clinicians assign a code from 0 100 2 Global assessment of the person s functioning b Critiques with DSM i Calls too many people disordered ii Border between diagnoses or normal seems arbitrary iii Value Judgments iv How we view and interpret the world which behavior and mental states to see as disordered c Vulnerability Factors and Ages i Poverty 1 Increases the risk of many mental disorders including aggression and anxiety Disorders decrease when poverty is lifted ii Age 1 Disorders show symptoms by early


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