UH BIOL 1361 - The Circulatory System (7 pages)

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The Circulatory System



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The Circulatory System

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The 22nd lecture that goes over the different circulatory systems.


Lecture number:
22
Pages:
7
Type:
Lecture Note
School:
University of Houston
Course:
Biol 1361 - Intro to Biological Science
Edition:
1
Documents in this Packet
Unformatted text preview:

BIOL 1361 1nd Edition Lecture 22 Outline of Last Lecture I Excretion II Metabolic Waste III Excretory Processes IV Excretory Systems V Kidney Anatomy VI Kidney Function Outline of Current Lecture I Purpose of Circulatory System Minimize Diffusion Distance II Circulatory System III Open vs Closed IV Vertebrate Circulatory System V Cells VI Vessels VII Flow Rate VIII Fick s Law IX Flow Circuits X Pump Current Lecture These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute I Purpose of Circulatory System Minimize Diffusion Distance a Diffusion i Supplies all cells with O2 and nutrients ii Carries away CO2 and metabolic waste b Body Shape i Flattened thin body 1 All cells within diffusion distance of external environment 2 This maximizes surface area volume 3 Ex Cnidria Platyhelminthes don t have circulatory systems c Gastrovascular Cavity i Body is 2 cells thick each cell is within diffusion distance of external environment II Circulatory System a All cells are within diffusion distance of a capillary b Open Circulatory System i Don t have capillaries instead have something else sinus ii Can have 1 or more hearts iii Has vessels from heart to sinus iv Sinuses are like a sac that surrounds organs v Vessels from sinus to heart vi Fluid hemolymph vii Ex Crab c Closed Circulatory System i Ex Earthworm ii Can have 1 or more hearts iii Blood flows within vessels throughout the body iv Blood is separate from interstitial fluid 1 Fluid between cells III Open vs Closed a Open i Arthropods insects spiders crustaceans ii Some mollusks b Closed i Fast moving mollusks octopus squid cuttlefish ii Earthworms iii All vertebrates IV Vertebrate Circulatory System a Fluid blood b 55 plasma c 45 cell V Cells a Erythrocytes red blood cells b Leukocytes white blood cells VI Vessels a Arteries i 3 Layers 1 Outer a Connective tissue and elastin 2 Middle a Muscle and elastin 3 Inner a Endothelial cells ii Purpose carry blood away from heart iii Lumen is much smaller iv Muscle is thicker b Veins i 3 Layers 1 Outer a Connective tissue and elastin 2 Middle a Muscle and elastin 3 Inner a Endothelial cells ii Purpose return blood to heart c Capillaries i One layer 1 Endothelial cells ii Purpose distribute blood through tissues VII Flow Rate a Flow rate depends on the cross section of the pipe i Flow rate is faster through a small pipe same volume VIII Fick s Law a Total area of capillaries is very large b Flow rate is slower in capillaries c This slow flow allows time for diffusion IX Flow Circuits a Single Circulation i Blood comes from the heart to the gills to the body and back to the heart ii Low O2 by the heart iii High O2 by the gills iv This only occurs in fish b Double Circulation i Occurs in the rest of the vertebrates ii Ex Panda human iii Advantage 1 Higher pressure enhances flow speed 2 Shorter turn over time allows more frequent exchange of nutrients wastes and gasses X Pump a Vertebrate heart structure b 3 chambered heart frog i 2 atria 1 ventricle ii dO2 and O2 blood mix in ventricle iii Blood flow to lungs can be closed off c Reptiles 3 or 4 chambered heart i Turtles lizards snakes squamates 1 2 atria 1 ventricle 2 dO2 and O2 blood mix in ventricle ii Crocodilians 1 2 atria 2 ventricles 2 dO2 and O2 blood separate in ventricles 3 Blood flow to lungs can be closed off d Birds and Mammals 4 chambered Heart i 2 atria 2 ventricles ii dO2 and O2 blood separated iii Blood flow to lungs never shut off iv Warmblooded endotherm v Metabolic rate is higher vi O2 demand is high


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