UH BIOL 1361 - Chemical Synapse and Hormones (6 pages)

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Chemical Synapse and Hormones

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Chemical Synapse and Hormones


The 24th lecture that finishes up the topic over neurons and begins the topic of hormones and signaling.

Lecture number:
Lecture Note
University of Houston
Biol 1361 - Intro to Biological Science
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BIOL 1361 1nd Edition Lecture 24 Outline of Last Lecture I Neuron Structure II Fig 37 2 III Real Neurons IV Resting Potential V Figure 37 6 VI Description of Ion Movement VII Electrochemical Equilibrium VIII Action Potential IX Graph Outline of Current Lecture I Synapse II At Chemical Synapse III Cell Communications and Hormones IV Hormones V Signaling Modes VI Pheromones VII Protein Secretion VIII Hormonal Regulation of Target Cells These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute IX Water Soluble hydrophilic Hormones X Signaling Pathway XI Figure 5 25 XII Signal Transduction Current Lecture I Synapse a Step 1 Axon goes down the axon b Step 2 The voltage gated Ca channel opens when the action potential arrives It enters the cell and attaches to the vesicles to make them fuse with the plasma membrane releasing the neurotransmitters c Step 3 The ligand gated Na channels open when the neurotransmitter attaches to them d Step 4 The Na K pump II At Chemical Synapse a The electrical signal crosses the synaptic clef gap between neurons b How i Action Potential reaches end of neuron ii Voltage changes in the neuron membrane iii Voltage gated Ca2 channels open iv Ca2 binds to vesicles containing neurotransmitter v Vesicles fuse with neuron membrane vi Neurotransmitter is released by exocytosis into the synaptic clef vii Neurotransmitter binds to receptors on next neuron viii Receptors are ligand gated Na channels Na channels that open when the right molecule ligand attaches 1 Ligand a small molecule that attaches to a receptor 2 Ligand is a general term ix Neurotransmitter detaches from receptors and is degraded by enzymes to stop signal III Why Do Cells Communicate a Unicellular Organisms i Food ii Safety iii Mates b Multicellular Organisms i Coordinate Activities IV Hormones a Def Chemical signals produced by endocrine cells i Endocrine cells secrete hormones into the interstitial fluid or into capillaries b Secreted into body fluid to act on target cells any cell with a receptor i Receptor is always a protein that binds a specific hormone V Signaling Modes a Two Basic Modes i Local Signaling 1 Gap Junctions allow ions to move between cells carrying an electrical signal 2 Paracrine chemical secreted from one cell signals a neighboring cell ii Long Distance Signaling 1 Hormone is secreted 2 Enters bloodstream 3 Travels to target cell in another part of the body 4 Example a Pancreas secretes insulin b Insulin travels in blood to signal muscle and fat cells VI Pheromones a Def molecules secreted by cells in one individual to act on cells in another individual of the same species VII Protein Secretion a Video Know this for the test VIII Hormonal Regulation of Target Cells a Cells have 2 ways to detect and respond to hormones i Receptors at the surface of the cell ii Receptors inside the cell b Detection method depends on type of hormone molecule i Hydrophilic molecule detected at cell surface ii Hydrophobic molecule detected afer enters cell IX Water Soluble hydrophilic Hormones a Structure i Peptide or amine X Signaling Pathway a Plasma Membrane Receptor i Receptor Protein integral protein 1 This means its embedded in the membrane ii Hormone attaches to extracellular side receptor iii Receptor changes shape XI Figure 5 25 a First Messenger hormone interacts with the receptor and sparks chain reaction b The G protein coupled receptor can bind GTP c The G protein can active an enzyme Adenylyl Cyclase d ATP turns into cAMP second messenger then activates other enzymes inside the cell such as protein kinase then lead to cellular response XII Signal Transduction a Intracellular 2nd messengers and cytosolic enzymes amplify the signal b Second Messengers i Intracellular molecules ii Activate enzymes that initiate cellular response iii Examples 1 Cyclic AMP 2 Ca2 c Enzymes i Kinases 1 Enzymes that add PO4 groups 2 Activate other intracellular enzymes in a cascade of reactions

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