UH BIOL 1361 - Final Exam Study Guide (14 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


This study guide covers the material of Thermoregulation and Homeostasis, Blood Glucose Homeostasis, Osmoregulation, Circulation, Cell Communication and Endocrine System, Neurons, & Reproduction.

Study Guide
University of Houston
Biol 1361 - Intro to Biological Science

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BIOL 1361 1nd Edition Exam 3 Study Guide Lectures 20 26 Lecture 20 November 20 Thermoregulation and Thermoconformity An animal is a regulator for an environmental variable if it uses internal mechanisms to control internal change in the face of external fluctuation An example of this is a river otter An animal is a conformer for a particular variable if it allows its internal condition to change in accordance with external changes An example of this is a bass Behavior and Heat Exchange Endotherms humans and birds are warmed by heat generated by metabolism Ectotherms fish and reptiles and invertebrates gain heat from external resources o Ectotherms adjust their body temperature behaviorally by seeking out shade or laying in the sun o Because their heat source is largely environmental ectotherms generally consume less food than endotherms Circulation and Heat Exchange In response to changing temperatures of their surroundings many animals alter the amount of blood and hence heat flowing between their body core and their skin Nerve signals that relax the muscles of the vessel walls result in vasodilation a widening of superficial blood vessels o As a result of the increase in vessel diameter blood flow in the skin increases o In endotherms vasodilation usually warms the skin and increases the transfer of body heat to the environment by radiation conduction and convection In contrast vasoconstriction reduces blood flow and heat transfer by decreasing the diameter of superficial vessels Counter Current Exchange o In many birds and mammals reducing heat loss from the body relies on countercurrent exchange the transfer of heat between fluids that are flowing in opposite directions o In a countercurrent heat exchanger arteries and veins are located adjacent to each others warm blood moves from the body core in the arteries it transfers heat to the colder blood returning from the extremities in the veins o Because blood flows through the arteries and veins in opposite

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