UMass Amherst ANTHRO 103 - Genus Homo (4 pages)

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Genus Homo



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Lecture 19 Outline of Last Lecture I Different Australopithecines II Homo habilis vs Australopithecines III Homo habilis vs Homo erectus Outline of Current Lecture II Homo habilis III Homo erectus vs Homo sapiens IV Turkana boy V Tool use VI Meat eating Current Lecture Homo habilis Oldowan tools Anthro 103 1st edition scavenged for meat rather than hunted for it Homo habilis and Australopithecines aren t that different from each other but Homo habilis and Homo erectus have many differences Homo erectus left its home Most organisms are adapted to the particular place where they evolved they stay there because they are adapted to that environment Homo erectus moved a relatively far distance in a relatively short period of time These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute Homo erectus long from front to back and short from top to bottom have bump at back of head called occipital torus have brow ridges cranium is thick post orbital constriction skull behind the eyes is pinched inward less frontal lobe area Homo sapiens spherical head our cranium is thin Homo erectus Turkana boy Brain about 900 cc 5 4 tall modern limb proportion size not arboreally adapted thorax rib cage is barrel shaped means our gut is smaller diet that is more easily digested wisdom teeth had not come in yet and epiphyses were present wasn t done growing but was already 5 4 tall as a child teenager What Homo erectus is imagined to look like Projecting nose may conserve water Turkana boy and modern humans have projecting nose compared to flat nosed Gorillas and Australopithecines Reduction in body hair No sagittal crest Homo erectus found in 3 locations across the globe all dating from 1 8 mya A lot of the old world was under ice sea level would be lower so there would be more land visible It was cold where Homo erectus was found How is it possible for a tropically adapted hominoid to live in the cold Meat fire and tools may have been factors Tools standardized Oldowan tools looked different from each other haphazard appearance no two alike but Homo erectus tools had a standardized form and were symmetrical more raw materials shows they were more innovative mental template had an image in mind for what they wanted the tool to look like Didn t just start chipping at stone until they were finished they had an end goal in mind suggests cognitive step or simply manipulative skills Oldowan tools associated with Homo habilis Acheulean tools associated with Homo erectus embraced culture biological and cultural adaptation Evidence for meat eating 800 000 years butchered bones Africa China Europe hunted not scavenged no carnivore sign front teeth and skull thorax shape


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