UMass Amherst ANTHRO 103 - Genus Homo (4 pages)

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Genus Homo

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Genus Homo


Are there multiple species between Homo erectus and Homo sapiens, or are we the same?

Lecture number:
Lecture Note
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Anthro 103 - Human Origins and Variation GenEd: BS
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Lecture 21 Outline of Last Lecture I Homo erectus Outline of Current Lecture II Lumpers vs Splitters III Anagenesis vs Cladogenesis IV Similaritites between archaic and modern homo sapiens V Two hypotheses VI Culture VII DNA Current Lecture Anthro 103 1st edition Lumpers people who see a lot of variation in fossils but lump everything into one species we have a lot of variation and we are the same species so its the same for the fossils Early archaic Homo sapiens Late archaic Homo sapiens Modern Homo sapiens Splitters look at the same fossils as lumpers but think there is more variation than you would find in one species so they split them into different species Homo erectus evolved into Homo heidelbergensis evolved into Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute Anagenesis evolution starts with form A over time form A becomes form B form B becomes form C Cladogenesis form A can continue and branch off into form B form B can continue and branch off into form C Things that are similar between archaic homo sapiens and modern homo sapiens Brain size Decreased skeletal robusticity Smaller teeth Increased cultural complexity However the cranium of an archaic homo sapiens is lower and longer than our round cranium 2 hypotheses Both start 2 mya Out of Africa splitter pov Homo erectus started in Africa and went off to Asia etc Then Homo erectus went extinct and was replaced by Homo heidelbergensis who traveled around the world Another speciation event happened and H neanderthalensis and H sapiens branched off Multiregional Continuity lumper pov Homo erectus left Africa and split off to Asia Europe etc There is regional variation of Homo erectus In each place Asia Europe etc Homo erectus was evolving towards Homo sapiens Gene flow between populations kept Homo erectus as one species even though they had separated regionally That s why there are modern human beings in Asia who look different from modern humans in Africa There was enough gene flow to keep us as one species even though we adapted to our environments In Africa Kabwe Zambia Fossil found Homo erectus evolved into Early archaic Homo sapiens lumper OR Homo heidelbergensis splitter Asia Fossils with larger brain than Homo erectus Europe Smaller molar teeth Front teeth incisors heavily worn Culture Tools Early Acheulean tools Later Levallois technique Hunting Hafted tools stone tool attached to stick Entire carcass control of resources Don t cut off leg and run away take entire animal Butchery marks Large animals Rhino good hunters take on challenging animals Spear 19 horses cooperation Denisovan archaic New fossil consisting of 1 pinky bone 1 molar tooth 30 000 50 000 years ago DNA more closely related to neanderthals than us but split a long time ago shared with some modern humans Neanderthals had shorter distal limbs tibia radius compared to modern humans Heavy robust femur compared to us the giant thick femur from lab Adaptation natural selection for Neanderthals to have short body adapted to cold Morphology present in men women and children from western europe to Uzbekistan

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