UMass Amherst ANTHRO 103 - Exam 2 Study Guide (30 pages)

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Exam 2 Study Guide

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Exam 2 Study Guide


Recap of all lectures since the midterm and book chapter summaries of chapters 7-10

Study Guide
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Anthro 103 - Human Origins and Variation GenEd: BS

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Exam 2 Study Guide Lectures 13 23 Chapters 7 10 Lecture 13 October 15 BERGMANN AND ALLEN S RULES Bergmann s Rule in the same species organisms tend to be larger in cold climates than in hot climates Person who is shorter and wider is better at conserving heat in cold mate than person who is long and narrow cli Anthro 103 1st edition Allen s Rule organisms living in a hotter environment will have long narrow appendages and organisms living in colder environments will be more compact WHAT IS A PRIMATE difficult to define easier to characterize by tendencies in a suite of characteristics genetically a distinct group apart from other comparable mammals CLASSIFICATION How do we classify organisms Phenogram Linnaeus said to group things that look alike Ex Lion grouped with tiger housecat is next most similar then squid then pine cone ANATOMICAL VS GENETIC CLASSIFICATION How would a lizard crocodile and bird be grouped Anatomical Lizard and crocodile grouped together bird separate arranged in phenogram Genetic Crocodile and bird together common ancestor lizard separate arranged in cladogram Anatomical similar adaptation Genetic relatedness phylogeny evolutionary history of a species TAXONOMY naming Monophyletic common ancestor and all descendents Paraphyletic common ancestor and subset of descendants Polyphyletic subset of ancestors from different clades Primates are a monophyletic group Human is monophyletic group Chimpanzee bonobo and human is monophyletic grou Gorilla chimpanzee bonobo and human is monophyletic group Notice that it meets on the rightmost line and all species above that point are in the monophyletic group STREPSIRRHINES lemurs loris HAPLORHINES tarsiers New World monkeys Old World monkeys apes PRIMATES Flexible anatomically behaviorally ecologically Primates are gnerealized have not specialized away from the general mammal condition Ex 5 digits fingers Other species who are specialized have changed to fit specific needs horse has one digit finger leg

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