UMass Amherst ANTHRO 103 - Exam 2 Study Guide (30 pages)

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Exam 2 Study Guide

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Exam 2 Study Guide


Recap of all lectures since the midterm and book chapter summaries of chapters 7-10

Study Guide
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Anthro 103 - Human Origins and Variation GenEd: BS
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Exam 2 Study Guide Lectures 13 23 Chapters 7 10 Lecture 13 October 15 BERGMANN AND ALLEN S RULES Bergmann s Rule in the same species organisms tend to be larger in cold climates than in hot climates Person who is shorter and wider is better at conserving heat in cold mate than person who is long and narrow cli Anthro 103 1st edition Allen s Rule organisms living in a hotter environment will have long narrow appendages and organisms living in colder environments will be more compact WHAT IS A PRIMATE difficult to define easier to characterize by tendencies in a suite of characteristics genetically a distinct group apart from other comparable mammals CLASSIFICATION How do we classify organisms Phenogram Linnaeus said to group things that look alike Ex Lion grouped with tiger housecat is next most similar then squid then pine cone ANATOMICAL VS GENETIC CLASSIFICATION How would a lizard crocodile and bird be grouped Anatomical Lizard and crocodile grouped together bird separate arranged in phenogram Genetic Crocodile and bird together common ancestor lizard separate arranged in cladogram Anatomical similar adaptation Genetic relatedness phylogeny evolutionary history of a species TAXONOMY naming Monophyletic common ancestor and all descendents Paraphyletic common ancestor and subset of descendants Polyphyletic subset of ancestors from different clades Primates are a monophyletic group Human is monophyletic group Chimpanzee bonobo and human is monophyletic grou Gorilla chimpanzee bonobo and human is monophyletic group Notice that it meets on the rightmost line and all species above that point are in the monophyletic group STREPSIRRHINES lemurs loris HAPLORHINES tarsiers New World monkeys Old World monkeys apes PRIMATES Flexible anatomically behaviorally ecologically Primates are gnerealized have not specialized away from the general mammal condition Ex 5 digits fingers Other species who are specialized have changed to fit specific needs horse has one digit finger leg Lecture 14 October 20 PRIMATES Anatomically flexible 5 fingers 4 tooth types dietary flexibility flexible skeletons allow a lot of mobility from living in trees you need to be able to move in all directions Behavioral flexibility Locomotion quadruped arboreal terrestrial knuckle walking leaping suspensory climbing bipedalism Dependence on learning vs genetic instinct not bees Have a long developmental period learn behaviors over time born with many instincts like bees who know they are worker Very social long term social relationships especially between child and mother Ecologically flexible Diurnal day nocturnal night Dietary flexibility omnivorous frugivorous folivorous Widespread although usually tropical live in Africa Asia South America PRIMATE SPECIALIZATIONS grasping hands and feet nails not claws visual specialization vs other senses large brain slow reproduction with parental investment Grasping hands and feet opposable thumbs precision grip being able to hold a pencil gives us better dexterity power grip picking up a glass wrapping hand around an object baseball have nerves in fingers that allow us to be sensitive to touch Vision versus olfaction smell protected eye socket color vision depth perception eyes close together Relative brain size Brain size increases with body mass Slow reproduction Parental investment especially by mothers Primates are omnivores but there are dietary specializations within primates frugivores fruit eaters insectivores insects gummivores tree saps and gums LECTURE 15 October 27 BEHAVIOR Behavior can increase fitness Behaviors are learned can also have a genetic basis Natural selection some behaviors favored Behavior evolves behavioral phenotype PRIMATE BEHAVIOR SOCIAL BEHAVIOR groups highly organized alliances ranks age mates kin complex relationships more individuals in a group the more kinds of relationships relationships are long lasting REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR What is the best behavior Depends on your sex For females food is scarce limits reproduction lactation is energy demanding For males females are scarce limits reproduction Therefore lots of competition concerning reproduction Female vs female for food Male vs male for females Doesn t mean the winner gets the female since she has a choice as well How can a female succeed Food helps but is limited Compete with other females dominance hierarchies dominant female gets priority at feeding sites avoid other females ex chimpanzees Choose good males Who control resources food Good genes peacock s tail females choose males who have something ex big and healthy male shows good immune system Helpful fathers Females choose males that show maternal traits will help protect child How can a male succeed Females have few offspring ovulate pregnancy lactate wean takes a long time before they can have another offspring Females are limiting resource Its the number of females that a male can mate with that determines his reproductive success leads to competition between males Sexual dimorphism Unlike in peacocks who have a phenotypic trait to impress females males can have phenotypic trait to battle other males bigger body size larger canines Dimorphism index male mass size divided by female mass size If index number is 1 males and females are the same size COOPERATIVE BEHAVIOR Cooperation can increase fitness chimps hunt together males help females raise offspring cooperative breeding LEARNED BEHAVIOR Potato washing Ex monkey saw potato on sandy beach went to water to wash it off Fellow monkeys observed her doing this and in a few generations it was a part of the culture Old monkeys did not do this old dog new trick but young monkeys did Tools used by chimps make tools for foraging use spears to stab into trees where nocturnal monkeys are babies watch parents do this learned behavior making spears is not genetic non material culture hand clasp vocalization PRIMATE GROUP ORGANIZATION AND MATING SYSTEMS 1 one male multi female polygyny one male dominates females females are fine with this because he is dominant and has territory all male groups 2 one female multi male polyandry ex marmosets multiple females in the group but one is reproductive when twins are born they could each have a different father 3 multimale multifemale polygynandry promiscuity ex baboons multiple males and females interbreed 4 one male one female monogamy pair bonded 5 solitary Strepsirrhini Africa Asia many are nocturnal tooth comb no postorbital closure long muzzle wet

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