UVM PA 395 - Weston-CarbonEU (7 pages)

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Weston-CarbonEU



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Weston-CarbonEU

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Pages:
7
School:
The University of Vermont
Course:
Pa 395 - International Development NGO
International Development NGO Documents

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Carbon Taxes in Selected European Union Countries An Overview of Initiatives Rachel Weston PA 395 Green Tax VT 1 9 21 04 The 1997 Kyoto Protocol has set emissions targets for certain countries to reduce their greenhouse gas production The Protocol was a response to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change UNFCC which called for the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system Bahn There are a few policy approaches that a country may employ to meet their set emission targets 1 A Market based approach A a tax may be put on things that would emit greenhouse gasses such as gasoline coal and electricity The consumption of such goods will decrease with the greater cost and create a demand for renewable non taxed goods Revenue from taxes can create a double dividend Bahn where the environment will improve and so will the tax system Tax revenue can be used to fund clean sources of energy B Emissions credits could be traded from countries that exceed their Kyoto target to countries that have not met their target 2 Governmental Regulation the government sets limits for consumption and emissions for industry and possibly citizens This approach would not seem to work well in democratic countries where such regulations would come under high public and private scrutiny for their encroachment on liberty It must be noted that the Clean Air Act won public approval though industry is still trying to undermine it via Bush s Clear Skies Initiative 3 Voluntary reductions through public education An excellent tool for getting information to citizens However this approach alone will not meet the Kyoto target For this paper I will be focusing in on methods used to reduce CO2 emissions in Europe primarily market based approaches SWEDEN Sweden has a high per capita electricity use which is partly due to the rapid expansion of electric space heating during the



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