UT Knoxville BIOL 140 - Chapter 13, 16, 19, 20 (146 pages)

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Chapter 13, 16, 19, 20



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Chapter 13, 16, 19, 20

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Pages:
146
School:
University of Tennessee
Course:
Biol 140 - Organization/Function of Cell
Organization/Function of Cell Documents

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Chapter 13 Mendel and the Gene 2011 Pearson Education Inc Introduction In 1865 Gregor Mendel worked out the rules of inheritance through a series of brilliant experiments on garden peas Early in the 20th century Walter Sutton and Theodor Boveri formulated the chromosome theory of inheritance which proposes that meiosis causes the patterns of inheritance that Mendel observed Genetics is the branch of biology that focuses on inheritance 2011 Pearson Education Inc Mendel s Experimental System Gregor Mendel was a 19th century monk and active member of his city s Agricultural Society Mendel was interested in heredity Heredity is the transmission of traits from parents to their offspring A trait is any characteristic of an individual 2011 Pearson Education Inc Garden Peas The First Model Organism in Genetics Genetics the branch of biology that focuses on the inheritance of traits uses model organisms because the conclusions drawn from them can be applied to other species Mendel chose the common garden pea Pisum sativum as his model organism because It is easy to grow Its reproductive cycle is short It produces large numbers of seeds Its matings are easy to control Its traits are easily recognizable 2011 Pearson Education Inc How Did Mendel Arrange Matings Peas normally pollinate themselves a process called selffertilization Mendel could prevent this by removing the male reproductive organs containing pollen from each flower He then used this pollen to fertilize the female reproductive organs of flowers on different plants thus performing cross pollination 2011 Pearson Education Inc 2011 Pearson Education Inc What Traits Did Mendel Study Mendel worked with pea varieties that differed in seven easily recognizable traits seed shape seed color pod shape pod color flower color flower and pod position and stem length An individual s observable features comprise its phenotype Mendel s pea population had two distinct phenotypes for each of the seven traits Mendel worked with pure



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