UT Knoxville BIOL 140 - Chapter 9 (69 pages)

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Chapter 9



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Chapter 9

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Pages:
69
School:
University of Tennessee
Course:
Biol 140 - Organization/Function of Cell
Organization/Function of Cell Documents

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Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration Fermentation 2011 Pearson Education Inc Introducing ATP ATP adenosine triphosphate is the cellular currency for energy it provides the fuel for most cellular activities ATP has high potential energy and allows cells to do work ATP works by phosphorylating transferring a phosphate group target molecules 2011 Pearson Education Inc The Nature of Chemical Energy and Redox Reactions In cells electrons are the most important source of chemical potential energy The amount of potential energy in an electron is based on its position relative to positive and negative charges Electrons closer to negative charges from other electrons and farther from positive charges in nuclei of nearby atoms have higher potential energy In general a molecule s potential energy is a function of its electrons configuration and position 2011 Pearson Education Inc Structure and Function of ATP The electrons in ATP have high potential energy because the four negative charges in its three phosphate groups repel each other Hydrolysis of the bond between the two outermost phosphate groups results in formation of ADP and Pi inorganic phosphate H2PO4 in a highly exergonic reaction The released phosphate group is transferred to a protein 2011 Pearson Education Inc 2011 Pearson Education Inc ATP Hydrolysis and Protein Phosphorylation Hydrolysis of ATP is exergonic because the entropy of the product molecules is much higher than that of the reactants Energy released during ATP hydrolysis is transferred to a protein during phosphorylation This phosphorylation usually causes a change in the protein s shape 2011 Pearson Education Inc 2011 Pearson Education Inc How Does ATP Drive Endergonic Reactions When a protein is phosphorylated the exergonic phosphorylation reaction is paired with an endergonic reaction in a process called energetic coupling In cells endergonic reactions become exergonic when the substrates or enzymes involved are phosphorylated 2011 Pearson Education Inc



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