UT Knoxville BIOL 140 - Chapter 5 (25 pages)

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Chapter 5



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Chapter 5

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Pages:
25
School:
University of Tennessee
Course:
Biol 140 - Organization/Function of Cell
Organization/Function of Cell Documents

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CHAPTER 5 2011 Pearson Education Inc Monosaccharides Vary in Structure Monosaccharide monomers are simple sugars that structurally vary in four primary ways 1 Location of the carbonyl group Aldose found at the end of the monosaccharide Ketose found in the middle of the monosaccharide 2 Number of carbon atoms present Triose three Pentose five Hexose six 3 Spatial arrangement of their atoms Different arrangement of the hydroxyl groups 4 Linear and alternative ring forms Sugars tend to form ring structures in aqueous solutions 2011 Pearson Education Inc 2011 Pearson Education Inc 2011 Pearson Education Inc 2011 Pearson Education Inc Summary of Monosaccharide Structure Many distinct monosaccharides exist because so many aspects of their structure are variable aldose or ketose placement of the carbonyl group variation in carbon number different arrangements of hydroxyl groups in space and alternative ring forms Each monosaccharide has a unique structure and function 2011 Pearson Education Inc The Structure of Polysaccharides Polysaccharides or complex carbohydrates are polymers of monosaccharide monomers The simplest polysaccharides are disaccharides comprised of two monosaccharide monomers The monomers can be identical or different Simple sugars polymerize when a condensation reaction occurs between two hydroxyl groups resulting in a covalent bond called a glycosidic linkage 2011 Pearson Education Inc Glycosidic Linkages The glycosidic linkages can form between any two hydroxyl groups thus the location and geometry of these bonds vary widely 2011 Pearson Education Inc 2011 Pearson Education Inc Types of Polysaccharides 1 Plants store sugar as starch Mixture of branched amylopectin and unbranched amylose glucose polymer 2 Animals store sugar as glycogen Highly branched glucose polymer 3 Cellulose is a structural polymer found in plant cell walls Polymer of glucose monomers 4 Chitin is a structural polymer found in fungi cell walls some algae and many animal exoskeletons



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