UT Knoxville BIOL 140 - Chapter 11 (55 pages)

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Chapter 11



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Chapter 11

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Pages:
55
School:
University of Tennessee
Course:
Biol 140 - Organization/Function of Cell
Organization/Function of Cell Documents

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Chapter 11 The Cell Cycle 2011 Pearson Education Inc Introduction to Cell Division Cells arise through the division of preexisting cells There are two types of cell division meiosis and mitosis Both forms of cell division are usually accompanied by cytokinesis in which the cytoplasm of the cell divides into two distinct daughter cells 2011 Pearson Education Inc Contrasting Mitosis and Meiosis Meiosis leads to the production of gametes eggs and sperm Daughter cells have half the amount of genetic material as the parent cell Mitosis leads to the production of all other cell types referred to as somatic cells Genetic material is copied and then divided equally Daughter cells are genetically identical to the parent cell 2011 Pearson Education Inc Functions of Mitosis Mitosis and cytokinesis are responsible for three key events in multicellular eukaryotes 1 Growth 2 Wound repair 3 Asexual reproduction 2011 Pearson Education Inc What Is a Chromosome Chromosomes contain a single long double helix of deoxyribonucleic acid DNA wrapped around proteins DNA encodes the cell s genetic information A gene is a section of DNA that encodes a specific protein or RNA Chromosomes can be stained with dyes and observed under the light microscope 2011 Pearson Education Inc 2011 Pearson Education Inc Chromosomes Change before and during Mitosis The purpose of mitosis is to distribute chromosomes to daughter cells during cell division To this end each chromosome is replicated prior to mitosis As mitosis starts the chromosomes condense from long thin filaments into compact structures that can be moved around the cell efficiently At the end of mitosis one of the chromosome copies is distributed to each of two daughter cells 2011 Pearson Education Inc Chromosome Replication Prior to mitosis each chromosome is replicated Each of the DNA copies in a replicated chromosome is called a chromatid Chromatids are joined together along their entire length as well as at a specialized region of the



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