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Media, Sports and Society- Start for Exam #2 - (Media) sports fanshipo “Benefits” of sports fanship Community aspect  Competitive aspect Satisfaction “feeling good”- emotion lift/joy Social aspect- self presentation/atmosphere Escape from reality- diversion o Multidimensional: emotional, cognitive, behavioral/social  On a basic human level: We have evolutionary and psychological needs that are met through group identification  “Sea turtles”- Sports fanship leads to group identification- Group Identification : An acquired, cognitive response within a person (experienced emotionally) wherein some of the attributes, motives, characteristics, and affective states of another become part of the person’s psychological organization, such that s/he reacts to the events occurring to the other as if they occurred to him/hero Humans HAVE to connect with other people - What are those needs that lead us to seek-out group identification? o Belonging and affiliation o Feel a part of a distinctive group o Self-image and terror management  When our self esteem is low, leads to thoughts of our own mortality  Group Identification  Improves Self-Esteem - But how do sports meet these needs? o Another form of group identification: Team identification  Team Identification: extent to which (1) a person feels a psychological connection to a team/athlete and (2) the performances by the team/athlete are viewed as self-relevant. - How do we come to “acquire” group/team identification through sports? o Socialization- “The process of learning to live in and understand a culture by internalization its valued beliefs and norms.”o Four main Socializing agent:  Family School  Friend/Peers Community in which we’re raised - Greatly influenced by family, school, friends/peers, and community. (Those around you)- But why particular teams/athletes? o 3 main reasons: Psychological, environmental, and team- related  Psychological: - Need for belonging, desire to be part of a distinctive group, self-esteem, idiosyncratic self-selection (basic physiological needs that lead us to like teams. o Ex: little boy on the playground that convinced people to like that team.  Environmental: - GREATEST INFLUENCE ON US o Family/friends Single greatest influence: #1 is FATHER- BROTHER is next o Geographic locationo Repeated exposure through mediao Direct contact with an athlete  We see teams being like us o Stadium  Team related - Team performance- Reputation of the Organization - Player/team perceived to be similar to fan- Hated Rival o Why are we fans of particular teams?- Sports Viewing appeal and effectso ENJOYMENT! (Feeling of pleasure) Participants, competitors, and outcome Emotional Affiliation: Happier when team wins if you’re a huge fan over someone who’s indifferent. - Max Enjoyment: Team you love wins over team you hate. - Max Disappointment: Opposite  Disposition theory of sports spectatorship- tries to define and explain the process of enjoying a LIVE sporting event. - Theory suggests TWO major factors: o Teams/participants involved-emotional connections (disposition)o If they win or not (THE OUTCOME) We seek out sports from enjoyment.  We feel for the teams- Identification/Group Psychological connection  The only way to feel that joy is through identification- Enjoyment is on a “continuum”- disappointment  out of this world pleasure - Emotional Responses: Appeal of sports- arousal, self-esteem and escapeo Arousal: Change in psychological response to stimuli (nervous system) Ex: Biking and car almost hits you- get nervous- Sports can change central nervous system- Game gets really tight- fast heart rate, anxious- Same hormone as sexual desire Sports influences our bodies- 12 like that feeling- Rollercoaster: Up and down, scoring and leading- Announcers: Say competitors hate each other- more intense than announcer saying competitors are friends. o Self esteem-o Birging- Basking in Reflective Glory**- Escape- escape boredom/stressSports viewing appeal and effects- Cognitive appeal of sportso Learning o Aesthetics- Behavioral appeal of sports:o Release- cheering, yelling, hyped upo Companionship and group affiliationo Familyo Economics- bet on How do Sports get on TV?- Must have the right to air it- Four MAJOR ways networks get the rightso Purchase them : rights contracts Rights contracts:- Overwhelmingly, most common model- Network pays contracted amount to the owners/organizers for exclusive rights to a set number of games/events over a set period of time. o Ex: of owners/organizers: NFL, NBA, IOC (International Olympic committee) Augusta National Golf League (The Masters)o Networks hope to recoup cost through advertising. o These days, broadcasting rights often include digital media. o Pros/cons of this model? o Share them - partnerships/revenue, sharing No contracted amount Initial production and promotion covered by network Network and owners/organizers agree to split revenue. - Partnership between the league and the network. - NBC as pioneered this approach: NHL, XFL- Pros/cons of this model?o Own them in the 1 st place : Owned programming Network is the owner/organizer; no, no rights fees need to be paid.  Network pays for everything, but they also keep all the ad profits. - Ex: ESPN and the X Games, NESN and the Boston Red Sox (both owned primarily by the Fenway Sports Group)o Pros/Cons:  If you own a bad team  Good product/Good Team The money you make is yourso Sell TV time to the rights owner : Time-buys Time-buys Owner/Organizer buys as many hours as necessary on network to air event.  Owner/Organizer responsible for everything, including production and ad sales.  Network pays for nothing but maintains some control over final product. - Ex: Ironman Triathlon (organized by Timex) historicallyaired on NBCo Pros/cons?  Network is guaranteed money  Selecting is more strategic - Negative: You have to do all the work. o Earliest days No rights agreements Paid for by broadcasters Mostly experimental; “Can we do this?”- First telecast: May 17th, 1939- Princeton vs. Columbia baseball game - First MLB: August 26th, 1939- Reds vs. Dodgers History of Sports Rights Contracts:- Post WWII: Begin increase in TV adoption in US (1950: in 9% of US HH; 1965 – 65%; 1960: nearing 90%)- Sports dominated early primetimeo Few cameras, no scripts,

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FSU MMC 3703 - Study Guide

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