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FSU CGS 2060 - Test 2 Study Guide

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CGS Test 2 Study GuideTechnology in Focus: Computing Alternatives• Open source software – Program code made publicly available for free; it can be copied, distributed, or changed without the stringent copyright protections of proprietary software products• Openoffice.org – Website to download the installation file you need to run OpenOffice• Writer – OpenOffice verison of Microsoft Word• Calc – OpenOffice version of Microsoft Excel• Impress – OpenOffice version of Powerpoint• Base – Enables you to create and modify tables, forms, queries, and reports by using wizards, design views, and SQL views. Similar to Microsoft Access• Mysql.com – Website to download a free high-end SQL database application. The most popular open source application is MySQL• Dia – A free program that allows you to create Visio-like diagrams and charts• GIMP – A free alternative to Adobe Photoshop that can be used to edit images• Mission control – A feature of Mac OS Lion that acts as a command center for the desktopChapter 6: Understanding and Assessing Hardware: Evaluate Your System• 3D sound card – An expansion card that enables a computer to produce sounds that are omnidirectional or three dimensional• Access time – The time it takes a storage device to locate its stored data• Bit depth – The number of bits a video card uses to store data about each pixel on the • Cache memory – Small blocks of memory, located directly on and next to the central processing unit (CPU) chip, that act as holding places for recently or frequently used instructions or data that the CPU accesses the most. When theseinstructions or data are stored in cache memory, the CPU can more quickly retrieve them than if it had to access the instructions or data from random access memory (RAM)• Clock speed – The steady and constant pace at which a computer goes through machine cycles, measured in hertz (Hz)• Core – A complete processing section from a CPU, embedded into one physical chip• CPU benchmarks – Measurements used to compare performance between processors• CPU usage graph – Records your CPU usage for the past several seconds• External SATA (eSATA) – A port that will connect to some external hard drive models• ExpressCard – Notebooks are often equipped with an ExpressCard slot. The ExpressCard can add a solid state drive (SSD), eSTATA and FireWire ports, and other capabilities to your system• Graphics double data rate 5 (GDDR5) – A standard of video memory• Graphics processing unit (GPU) – A specialized logic chip that is dedicated to quickly displaying and calculating visual data such as shadows, textures, and luminosity• Hard drive – A device that holds all permanently stored programs and data; can be located inside the system unit or attached to the system unit via a USB port• Head crash – Impact of read/write head against magnetic platter of the hard drive; often results in data loss• Hyperthreading – A technology that permits quicker processing of information by enabling a new set of instructions to start executing before the previous set has finished• Kernel memory – The memory that the computers operating system uses• Latency – The process that occurs after the read/write head of the hard drive locates the correct track, and then waits for the correct sector to spin to the read/write head• Memory module (memory card) – A small circuit board that holds a series of random access memory (RAM) chips• Moore’s Law – A prediction, named after Gordon Moore, the cofounder of Intel; states that the number of transistors on a CPU chip will double every two years• Nonvolatile storage – Permanent storage, as in read-only memory (ROM)• Optical drive – A hardware device that uses lasers or light to read from, and maybe even write to, CDs, DVDs, or Blu-ray discs• Physical memory – The amount of random access memory (RAM) that is installed in a computer• Platter – A thin, round, metallic storage plate stacked onto the hard drive spindle• Random Access Memory (RAM) – The computers temporary storage space or short-term memory. It is located in a set of chips on the system unit’s motherboard, and its capacity is measured in megabytes or gigabytes• Read/write head – The mechanism that retrieves (reads) and records (writes) the magnetic data to and from a data disk• Redundant array of independent disks (RAID) – A set of strategies for using more than one drive in a system• Serial advanced technology attachment (Serial ATA) – A type of hard drive that uses much thinner cables, and can transfer data more quickly than IDE drives• Sector – A section of a hard drive platter, wedge-shaped from the center of the platter to the edge• Seek time – The time it takes for the hard drive’s read/write heads to move over the surface of the disk to the correct track• Solid state drive (SSD) – A storage device that uses the same kind of memory that flash drives use, but can reach data in only a tenth of the time a flash drive requires• Sound card – An expansion card that attaches to the motherboard inside the system unit and that enable the computer to produce sounds by providing a connection for the speakers and microphone• SuperFetch – A memory-management technique used by Windows 7. Monitors the applications you use the most and preloads them into your system memory so that they’ll be ready to go• Surround sound – A type of audio processing that makes the listener experience sound as if it were coming from all directions• System evaluation – The process of looking at a computer’s subsystems, what they do, and how they perform to determine whether the computer system has the right hardware components to do what the user ultimately wants it to do• Track – A concentric circle that serves as a storage area on a hard drive platter• Video card (video adapter) – An expansion card that is installed inside a system unit to translate binary data (the 1s and 0s the computer uses) into the images viewed on the monitor• Video memory – Ram that is included as a part of a video card• Volatile storage – Temporary storage, such as in random access memory (RAM). When the power is off, the data in volatile storage is cleared outChapter 7: Networking: Connecting Computing Devices• Backward compatibility – The accommodation of current devices being able to use previously


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