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FSU CGS 2060 - Technology in Focus

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Technology in FocusSwitches • System unit is the box that contains the central electronic components of the computer• A computer system can be viewed as an enormous collection of on/off switchesElectrical switches• Computers work exclusively with numbers, not words• Everything a computer does, such a processing data or printing a report, is broken down into series of 0s and 1so Binary language• Electrical switches are inside the computer and can be flipped between these two states: 1 and 0• On/off button on DVDo On is pushed ino Off is popped outVacuum Tubes• Earliest generation of electronic computers used devices called vacuum tubes• Act as computer switches by blocking the flow of electrical current• Takes up a lot of space• First high speed digital computero ENIAC• Produce a lot of heat and burn out frequently• Two major revolutions for smaller and faster computers wereo Invention of transistoro Fabrication of integrated circuitsTransistors• Are electrical switches built out of semiconductor either by conducting electricity or act as an insulatoro Silicon is the semiconductor material used to make transistorso Need specific chemicals to turn on and if not then it turns off, acting like a switch• Early transistors were separate units of metal rodso Smaller, produce little heat, quick switching and less expensiveIntegrated Circuits• Are tiny regions of semiconductor material such as silicon• Most integrated circuits are no more than a quarter inch in size• Integrated circuits have enabled microprocessors, which are chips that contain a CPUo Marked the beginning of the true miniaturization of computers More than 2300 transistorsThe Binary Number System• A number system is an organized plan for representing a number• Base 10 number system, also known as decimal notation, uses 10 digits (0-9)• 6954=6*(1000)+9*(100)+5*(10)+4*(1)=6*103+9*102+5*101+4*100o Final number 1 is represented as 100• The binary number system is also referred to as the base 2 number systemo Can still represent all the values that a base 10 number system can• The binary number system describes a number as the sum of powers of 2o Codes for numbers, letters and instructionsRepresenting Integers• In the base 10 number system, a whole number is represented as the sum powers of 10• Binary system works by describing a value as the sum of groups of 1s, 2s, 4s, 8s, etc.o Powers of 2:1,2,4,8,etc• Number 67o Base 10: 6*101+7*100o Binary (base 2): 26=64, you have 3 left over so 32,16,8, and 4 will be 0s because they cannot contribute. You can have 1 group of 2 and 1 group of one 1000011• Doing this on Windows calculator from the programmer selection is much easier because it converts it from decimal to binary automatically• Hexadecimal notation is used to make expression of long numbers easiero Base 16 number system 0-9 plus letters • A=10, B=11, etcRepresenting characters: ASCII• This converts letters and other symbols that we understand to a binary state that the computer can understand• Older mainframes used EBCDIC while today’s personal computers use ASCIIo ASCII represents each letter or character as an 8 bit binary code• Remember that a binary digit is a bit and 8 bits is a byteo Each single alphabetical or special character is 1 byte (8bits) Total of 8 0s and 1s• Upper and lowercase letters have different codesRepresenting characters: Unicode• ASCII code can only assign 256 (28) different codes• ASCII codes cannot represent all languages and symbols, because some languages requires more than 256 characters and letterso Unicode was created to solve this Uses 16 bits and can code 1,115,000 different codes First 128 are identical to ASCII Anticipated to replace ASCIIRepresenting decimal numbers• Institute of electrical and electronics engineering (IEE) established a standard called the floating point standard that describes how numbers with fractional parts should be representedo 32-bit system -0.75• First tells you neg. or positive• Next bit is for magnitude of number (hundreds, tens, etc)• Last 23 bits are to store the number valueInterpretation• Decimal numbers are stored by IEEE standards while alphabet and symbols are stored by Unicode or ASCII• Certain instructions tell the CPU to expect a negative number next or to interpret the following bit pattern as a charactero CPU ALWALYS knows which interpretation to use for a series of bitsThe CPU machine cycle• Also called processing cycleo Fetch from RAMo Decode into CPU languageo Execute the actual worko Store in one of the registers built in CPUThe system clock• It is the internal clock that is a special crystal that acts like a metronome to keep the steady beato Steady beat or ticks are called clock cycle which set the pace The pace known as clock speed is measured in GHzControl unit• Manages the switches of CPU• Designed to remember the sequence of processing stages and how each switch should be positioned with each beat of the system clockStage 1: The fetch stage• RAM is direct and fast way to access instructions and program informationCache memory• Faster than RAM• Avoids the CPU from needing to fetch instructions from RAM every time• Before going to RAM the CPU will look in o Level 1 cache memory Block of memory that is built onto the CPU chip to store data and commands that have just been usedo Level 2 cache memory Farther from CPU than level 1 Has more storageo Level 3 cache memory Can hold an entire program• Can’t upgrade cache • More cache the better performance speed of your computerStage 2: The decode stage• Collection of commands a specific CPU can execute is called instruction seto Each CPU has its own unique instruction set• Because humans are the ones who write the initial instructions, it is written in an easier language called assembly languageo ADD for addition, DIV for divide, etco Translated into long strings of binary code called machine language Control unit uses this to set up the hardware in the CPU for the rest of the operationsStage 3: The execute stage• Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) does CPU mathematical operations and logical operations such as AND,OR and NOT• Fed data from the CPU’s registers• The number of bits a computer can work with at a time is referred to as word sizeo 64-bit vs 32-bitStage 4: The store stage• Results from ALU is stored back in the registers


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