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FSU CGS 2060 - Test 1 Study Guide

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CGS 2060 Test 1 Study GuideChapter 1Affective computing – computing that relates to emotion or deliberately tries to influence emotionBluetooth – A type of wireless technology that uses radio waves to transmit data over short distances. Often used to connect peripherals such as printers and keyboards to computers or headsets to cell phonesComputer forensics – The application of computer systems and techniques to gather potential legal evidence; a law enforcement specialty used to fight high tech crimeComputer literate – Being familiar enough with computers that you understand their capabilities and limitations and know how to use themDigital divide – The discrepancy between those who have access to the opportunities and knowledge computers and the Internet offer and those who do notDigital home – A home that has a computers and other digital devices that are all connected to a home networkInformation technology (IT) – The set of techniques used in processing and retrieving informationNanoscience – The study of molecules and nanostructures whose size ranges from 1 to 100 nanometersNanotechnology – The science of using nanostructures to build devices on an extremely small scaleOffshored – The process of sending jobs formerly performed in the US to other countriesPatient simulator – A computer controlled mannequin that simulates human body functions and reactions. They are used in training doctors, nurses, and emergency services personnel by simulating dangerous situations that would put live patients at riskPublic domain – The status of software that is not protected by copyrightRadio frequency identification tag (RFID tag) – A tag that looks like a sticker or label, is attached to a batch of merchandise, and contains a microchip hat holds a unique sequence of numbers used to identify the product to which it is attachedSoftware – The set of computer programs or instructions that tell the computer what to do and enables it to perform different tasksSpam – Unwanted or junk emailChapter 2All in one computer – desktop system unit that houses the computers processor, memory, and monitor in a single unitApplication Software – Set of programs on a computer that helps a user carry out tasks such as word processing, sending email, balancing a budget, creating presentations, editing photos, taking an online course, and playing gamesAspect ratio – The width to height proportion of a monitorBinary digit (bit) – A digit that corresponds to the on and off states of a computers switches. Contains a value of either 0 or 1. Binary language – The language computers use to process data into information, consisting of only the value 0 and 1Blu-ray disc – A method of optical storage for digital data, developed for storing high definition media. It has the largest storage capacity of all optical storage optionsBrightness – A measure of the greatest amount of light showing when a monitor is displaying pure white; measured a candelas per square meter or nitsByte – Eight binary digits (bits)Compact disc (CD) – A method of optical storage for digital data; originally developed for storing digital audioCentral processing unit (CPU) – The part of the system unit of a computer that is responsible for data processing; it is the largest and most important chip in the computer. The CPU controls all the functions performed by the computers other components and processes all the commands issued to it by software instructionsCold boot – The process of starting a computer from a powered down or off stateComputer – A data processing device that gathers, processes, outputs, and stores data and informationConnectivity port – A port that enables the computer to be connected to other devices or systems such as networks, modems, and the internetContrast ratio – A measure of the difference in light intensity between the brightest white and the darkest black colors that a monitor can produce. If the contrast ratio I too low, colors tend to fade when the brightness is adjusted to a high or low settingCursor control key – A set of controls on standard keyboards that move the cursorData – Numbers, words, pictures, or sounds that represent facts, figures, or ideasDesktop computer – A computer that is intended for use at a single location. A desktop computer consists of a case that houses the main components of the computer, plus peripheral devicesDigital video disc (DVD) – A method of optical storage for digital data that has greater storage capacity than compact discsDigital video interface (DVI)– Video interface technology that newer LCD monitors, as well as other multimedia devices such as televisions, DVD players, and projectors, use to connect to a PCDrive bay – A special shelf inside a computer that is designed to hold storage devicesEmbedded computer – A specifically designed computer chip that resides inside another device, such as a car. These self-contained computer devices have their own programming and typically neither receives input from users nor interacts with other systemsErgonomics – How a user sets up his or her computer and other equipment to minimize risk or injury or discomfortEthernet port – A port that is slightly larger than a standard phone jack and transfers data at speeds of up to 10,000 Mbps; used to connect a computer to a DSL or cable modem or a networkExpansion card – A circuit board with specific functions that augment the computers basic functions and provide connections to other devices; examples include the sounds card and the video cardExternal hard drive – An internal hard drive that is enclosed in a protective case to make it portable; the drive is connected to the computer with a data transfer cable and is often used to back up dataFireWire 400 – An interface port that transfers data at 400 MbpsFireWire 800 – One of the fastest ports available, moving data at 800 MbpsFlash drive – A drive that plugs into a universal serial bus (USB) port on a computer and stores data digitallyFlash memory card – Portable, nonvolatile memoryFlat-panel monitor – A type of monitor that is lighter an more energy efficient than a CRT monitor; often used with portable computers such as notebooksGigabyte – About a billion bytesGigahertz – One billion hertzHard drive – A device that holds all permanently stored programs and data; can be located inside the system unit or attached to the system unit via a USB


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