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Final Exam Study Guide – Fall 2013 – 150 pts, 1/3 material from previous exams, 2/3 material covered since exam 4CUMULATIVE MATERIAL (study only these topics)Chapter 1:Understand the taxonomic organization within each of the 3 domains:Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, SpeciesChapter 2:Know the relative electronegativity of: Hydrogen, Carbon, Nitrogen, and OxygenH<C<N<OUnderstand what happens during the formation of:- Ionic bonds : electrons are donated from one atom to another and opposite charged ions are attracted to each other.- Covalent bonds (both polar and nonpolar):o Polar: atom share electrons unequally, one atom has a higher EN than the othero Non-polar: atoms share electrons equally because the atoms have the same/similar EN’s- Hydrogen bonds : always involves hydrogen. Hydrogen is already involved in a polar covalent bond with a high EN atom (usually N or O), so Hydrogen takes a partial positive charge. Hydrogen then forms a weak attraction to a nearby atom with a partial negative charge (usually N or O)- Van der Waal’s interactions : these are always present, regardless of the molecule. They are due to re-distribution of electrons in their orbitals. Brief weak attraction between very closely spaced atoms.Be able to classify bonds as polar, nonpolarRemember HCNO! Non-Polar: next to each other, will share equally. Polar: aren’t next to each other, one will attract more so unequal sharing.Chapter 3:Know the four emergent properties of water that contribute to Earth’s fitness for life, and be able to give a real-world example of each1. Expands upon freezing  Ice floats2. Resists changes in temperature, takes a lot of heat to change it  Boiling water takes a while3. Cohesive behavior, water sticks to water, allows for surface tension  walk on water4. Versatility as a solvent  anything that is polar or ionic (charged) will dissolve in waterChapter 4: Be able to distinguish between structural isomers, geometric isomers, and enantiomers- Structural Isomers : have the same chemical formula, but atoms are arranged differently- Geometric Isomers : must have C=C, chemical groups arranged differently around C=C- Enantiomers : mirror images that can have entirely different chemical propertiesChapter 5:Understand condensation synthesis and hydrolysis reactions- Condensation synthesis : how cells build macromolecules. Water is removed and monomers are linked together with a covalent bond- Hydrolysis : how cells break down macromolecules. Water added and it breaks the peptide bonds holding the monomers togetherUnderstand the roles of each of the 4 major macromolecules in our cells1. Proteins : molecular tools. Do jobs in cells. Involved in all processes. Made of amino acids.2. Carbohydrates : used for energy (glycogen in animals and starch in plants) or for building (chitin in animals and cellulose in plants). Made of monosaccharide monomers.3. Lipids : used for long-term energy storage. Higher in energy per gram than any other macromolecules, very dense. Made of fatty acid monomers.4. Nucleic acids : info storage. DNA  RNA. Made of nucleotide monomers.Chapter 6:Understand the basic roles of the organelles in eukaryotic cells- Mitochondria : produces ATP- Chloroplasts : site of photosynthesis in plant cells and some bacteria- Ribosome : site of protein synthesis- Nucleus : contains most DNA, directs protein synthesis, control center of cell- Smooth ER : where lipids are made- Rough ER : contains ribosomes on surface where proteins are made- Golgi apparatus : shipping center, directs proteins made on rough ER- Peroxisomes : helps detox the cell, destroys toxins/poisons- Lysosomes : garbage disposal, very low pH; proteins, worn-out organelles, macromolecules get sent here to be broken down; recycling of cellular materialsChapter 7:Understand the fluid mosaic model and the organization of phospholipids in the plasma membraneProposes that the plasma membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer that behaves more like a liquid than a solid. Proteins are inserted within/attached to it. Phospholipids in bilayer with hydrophobic fatty tails pointed at each other and hydrophilic heads exposed to watery environment on both sides of membrane.Understand what happens during osmosisWater goes from low solute conc (high water conc) across a membrane to an area of high solute conc (low water conc), diluting it until equal solute conc. Diffusion of WATER.Chapter 8:Be able to classify reactions as endergonic and exergonic- Endergonic : Reactants less energy than products. Energetically uphill. Energy added.- Exergonic : Reactants more energy than products. Energetically downhill. Energy released.Understand and be able to apply the Gibb’s free energy equationΔG=ΔH-TΔS  Free energy (available energy) = Enthalpy (total energy) – Temperature * change in Entropy (unusable energy)  +ΔG = endergonic & -ΔG = exergonicChapter 9:Be able to list the inputs and outputs for each stage of cellular respiration- Glycolysis :o In – glucose Out: 2ATP, 2NADH, 2 Pyruvates- Bridge Reaction : o In – 2 Pyruvates Out: 2 Acetyl-coA’s, 2NADH- Krebs :o In – 2 Acetyl-coA’s Out: 6NADH, 2FADH2, 2ATP- ETC and Oxidative Phosphorylation (need oxygen to accept electrons):o In – electrons from NADH and FADH2Out: 34-36 ATP, waterChapter 10:Be able to list the inputs and outputs for each stage of photosynthesis, including what gets produced by photosystem 1 and 2- Light-dependent Reaction :o In – sunlight, water Out: PSII – ATP, PSI – NADPH- Calvin Cycle : o In – ATP, NADPH, CO2Out: glucose, oxygenChapter 11:Understand where receptors for hydrophilic and hydrophobic messengers are located on target cells and why- Hydrophilic: have receptors in the plasma membrane (they cant cross it)- Hydrophobic : have receptors in cytoplasm or nucleusChapter 12:Understand what type of daughter cells are produced during mitosis and what effect this process has on the chromosome numberMitosis: 2 identical daughter cells with same chromosome number as the parent cellChapter 13:Understand what type of daughter cells are produced during meiosis and what effect this process hason the chromosome numberMeiosis I and II: 4 daughter cells that aren’t identical. Chromosome number is reduced by half from the parent cell. Daughter cells are gametes.NON-CUMULATIVE MATERIALChapter 14:Understand the relationship between


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LSU BIOL 1201 - CUMULATIVE MATERIAL

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