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Jaymie TicknorDevelopmental Psychology 3620 Sect. 8538 and 11 November 2013Lecture #28Chapter #3 PowerpointResearch Methods in Developmental Psychology: Basic Research: primary goal of adding to our body of knowledge rather than having immediate, direct applicationApplied Research: primary goal of solving problems or improving the human conditionGeneral Research Procedures: developing research questions, research literature, forming hypotheses, operationalizing constructs/variables, determining independent and dependent variables, sampling and representative samples, methods and measures, data collection, analyzing data and interpret resultsDeveloping RQ and Hypotheses: Research Questions; Hypothesis: a prediction, often based upon theoretical ideas or observations, that is tested by the scientific methodDirectional Hypothesis: method A is more effective than method BNon-Directional Hypothesis: believe that there will be a significant difference between method A and method B (not state which one is higher or better)Operationalizing Concepts: Operationalization: defining a concept in a way that allows it to be measured; IV and DV; most things studied in psychology are invisible/not tangibleSampling and Representative Samples: Population: those we are interested in studying or learning more about; Sample: a group selected from the population, representative sampleSampling Methods: Random Sampling: three types: simple (equal chance to be selected), stratified (want sample to mimic percentages; predetermined strategy; 5demographic variables: age, education, race/ethnicity, region, gender), and cluster random sampling (random select a few groups individuals belong to); Non-random Sampling: three types: systematic (predetermined; certain set available), purposive (recruit people to reach large number; better chance to find research participant), and convenient (access to; most common; biased) samplingLecture #29Chapter #3 PowerpointResearch Design: Experimental : random assignments of participantsExperimental vs. Control; “treatment” or notThe “treatment” is the independent variable; the outcome is the dependent variableAll other conditions are the sameQuasi-Experiments, or Causal-Comparative: comparing groups that presumably receive different “treatments”, but these “treatments” were not set up by the experimenter (often based on existing demographic variables)Correlational Research: most commonly used; there is no “treatment” assigned to different groups; the researcher examines whether variables that occur naturally are related to one anotherTherefore, causality cannot be inferred between variables; two risks: variables may not be the direct cause, just associated, only tells relationship, not causal relationshipLongitudinal Research: most valuable and most difficult; long-term study on same sample for yearsCross-sectional Research: different samples at same timePrimary Source: two conditions: first hand empirical and original data; author is actual researcherSecondary Source: author not researcherResearch Ethics with Children and Adolescents: minimum risks; informed consent of parent and child; right to withdraw from research; confidentiality of information; an institutional review board (submit protocol to get approved by the IRB); responsible federal agency for guidelines and regulations of human research studies is the Department of Health and Human

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