New version page

OU HES 2823 - Exam 1 Study Guide

Type: Study Guide
Pages: 12

This preview shows page 1-2-3-4 out of 12 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 12 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

HES 2823 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 8Lecture 1 (January 13)Introduction to NutritionWhat does it mean to” rectangularize” the health curve?If average human health were to be plotted on a graph, most would expect the trending line to diminish with age; however, with proper nutrition, people can achieve great health regardless ofage. Thus, the health curve would not slope negatively. Instead, it will continue horizontally untildeath.Lecture 2 (January 15) Introduction to CarbohydratesWhat are monosaccharides and their characteristics?Monosaccharide: building block monomers of larger carbohydrates- Glucose: referred to as “blood sugar” and dextrose on food labels; found in fruit- Fructose: referred to as “fruit sugar” because of its presence in fruit; the sweetest carbohydrate; comprises high fructose corn syrup- Galactose: not found in foods as a monosaccharide; acts primarily as a monomer to build larger carbohydratesWhat are disaccharides and their characteristics? Which monosaccharides form which disaccharides?Disaccharide: a combination of two monosaccharides- Sucrose: referred to as “table sugar;” present in cookies, cakes, candy, etc.; comes from sugarcane and sugar beets; formed by glucose and fructose- Maltose: rarely found in food; produced from the digestion of starch; formed by glucose and glucose- Lactose: known as “milk sugar;” found in dairy; formed by glucose and galactoseLecture 3 (January 20)Continuation of Carbohydrates, Discussion of Digestion, and Introduction to Blood Glucose RegulationWhat are polysaccharides and their characteristics? Which monosaccharides from which polysaccharides? Polysaccharide: multiple monosaccharides (hundreds) that form complex carbohydrates- Starch: glucose polymer of two different types, each comprising 50% of starch intake;the means in which plants store carbohydrates through the process of photosynthesis: CO2 + H20  C6H12O6 (glucose) + O2; the opposite equation of C6H12O6 (glucose) + O2  CO2 + H20 + energy, represents man metabolizing food examples include grains, like wheat, corn, rice, and oats, and non-grain potatoeso Amylose: straight chain of glucoseo Amylopectin: branched chain of glucose- Glycogen: glucose polymer; branched structure of glucose; the means of human storage of carbohydrates; unimportant dietary substance- Cellulose: glucose polymer; all plants contain it; indigestible as a fiber; most commonorganic compound- Maltodextrose: glucose polymer formed by 10 glucose molecules; referred to as maltodextrin on food labels; partially digested starch; a manufactured carbohydrateWhat is the pathway of digestion and how does it work? Digestion: the breaking down of large molecules into smaller molecules – in the case of carbohydrates, polysaccharides become disaccharides, which become monosaccharidesThe pathway of food begins when food enters the mouth, travels, down the esophagus, througha sphincter into the stomach, undergoes the beginnings of chemical digestion, exits the stomachthrough a second sphincter, and enters the small intestine. The substances travel the length of the small intestine, followed by the distance of the large intestine and into the colon, from which it is excreted from the body through the anal sphincter.Upon entering the gastrointestinal tract, the nutrients of the partially digested food described above are absorbed by mucosal cells lining the small intestinal walls. Digestion and absorption end after all the nutrients have been retrieved from the passing food in the small intestine. The monosaccharides, glucose, galactose, and fructose, are included in absorption and enter the blood, which is carried to the portal vein that leads to the liver so that galactose and fructose can be converted into glucose before entering body cells as energy.How is blood glucose regulation controlled?When an individual consumes food, his blood glucose concentration increases because of the introduction of glucose from the food. The pancreatic hormone, insulin, also increases within the blood and tells cells to uptake the glucose. Once the supply of glucose depletes, another pancreatic hormone, glucagon, increases within the blood and tells cells to break down the glucagon to prevent one’s blood glucose concentration from becoming too low.Lecture 4 (January 22)Continuation of Blood Glucose Concentration and Its Unhealthy Regulation and Introduction of Glycemic IndexWhat is the trend of blood glucose levels in the blood in correlation with insulin and glucagon? After the introduction of glucose into the body, levels of blood glucose concentration rise until peaking around one to two hours after food consumption. The levels return to normal between two and three hours after the original ingestion of food. Insulin increases at the same trend as glucose, and once both the insulin and glucose levels return to normal (at approximately 100 mg/100 ml), glucagon levels begin to rise, preventing blood glucose levels from reaching zero. Blood glucose levels should oscillate up and down consistently and mildly.What are instances of unhealthy blood glucose regulation and how do they cause harm? Diabetes: a condition associated with hyperglycemia, in which there is too much glucose in the blood; affects 10% of the US population; two types exist- Type 1: the body does not produce sufficient insulin to manage glucose, causing to much to remain in the blood without insulin to tell cells to absorb it; medicated with insulin therapy- Type 2: the body produces insulin, but glucose acts insulin-resistant, causing to muchglucose to remain in the blood regardless of the presence of ineffective insulin; associated with obesity and a current US epidemic; medicated with hypoglycemic drugsHypoglycemia: a condition opposite of diabetes, in which blood glucose levels do not maintain astable level, falling beneath normal range and causing fatigue, headaches, and grogginess; not life-threatening and often undiagnosed; treated with regularly scheduled mealsWhich has a higher glycemic index: cornflakes or starch?Cornflakes have a higher glycemic index than chocolate does. Cornflakes are starch (a glucose polymer), thus comprised of pure glucose, more closely aligning to the pure glucose curve on a glucose tolerance test. Chocolate is formed by sucrose (glucose and fructose), and because it is not pure glucose, the resulting glycemic index becomes lower as it is less pure.What is glycemic index


View Full Document
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Exam 1 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Exam 1 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?