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OU HES 2823 - Heart Disease Risks, Trans Fat, and Food Labels

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HES 2823 1nd Edition Lecture 8 Outline of Last Lecture I. Fat and Cholesterol in FoodsA. AtherosclerosisB. Fat in DietC. Cholesterol in DietD. Different Types of Fats in DietOutline of Current Lecture I. Review of Previous LectureII. Trans FatIII. Food LabelsIV. Omega-3 Fatty AcidsCurrent LectureI. Review of Previous LectureA. Atherosclerosis1. High blood pressure, chemicals from smoking and pollution cause damage to artery walls2. Occasionally, scar tissue forms after healing3. The body coats over the scar tissue with spongy cholesterol and fat tissue to smoothen it; however, sometimes the tissue continues to grow away from the artery wall, forming plaque4. Sometimes the tissue bursts and blood flows from plaque, clots the artery, and blocks blood flow to the heart and brain, causing either a heart attack or stroke5. How does diet impact this process?a. Cholesterol is a lipid, meaning it is insoluble in waterb. Blood is primarily waterc. Fat floats on water, so cholesterol must combine into the blood through lipoproteins (a large complex of triglycerides, cholesterol, and protein), which transport cholesterol in the bloodi. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL): carries cholesterol to tissues- Plaque absorbs the cholesterol as it aids in its growth- “bad” cholesterolThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.ii. High-density lipoprotein (HDL): carries cholesterol away from tissues- Drawn from plaque- Lowers heart disease risk- “good” cholesterol6. Charting Heart Disease Risk Posed by LipidsType of Lipid Total Cholesterol LDL-C HDL-CHeart DiseaseRiskSaturated Fat Increase Increase No effect IncreaseMonounsaturatedFatDecrease Decrease No effect DecreasePolyunsaturatedFatDecrease Decrease Decrease NeutralCholesterol Increase Increase No effect IncreaseTrans Fat Increase Increase No effect Increase7. Charting Heart Disease Risk Posed by Saturated Fatty AcidsFatty Acid Heart Disease Risk ExampleStearic Lowest Beef, chocolatePalmitic Higher PorkMyristic Higher Dairylauric Highest Dairy (#1 target)II. Trans FatA. Around a carbons attached by a double bond, the outer carbons attach on the same side, called cis-nature or configuration, which is naturalB. Hydrogenation causes saturation, occurring when a fat is solid at room temperatureC. Partially hydrogenated and fully hydrogenated substances1. Placed in vat of oil combined with hydrogen atmosphere and a catalyst2. Sometimes instead of eliminating double bonds, one carbon shifts to the other side3. Trans fat: the unnatural configuration of carbons surrounding a double bond, which forms a straight carbon chain, much like a saturated fat4. Increases cholesterol as much as saturated fatD. Tropical oils (coconut oil)1. The removal of tropical oils from food meant the addition of partially hydrogenated vegetable oil (a source of trans fat), such as shortening or margarine2. Occurred 10-15 years ago3. Trans fat replaced tropical oils, thus its recommendations were added to the health heart guidelines4. Comparison of Margarine and ButterMargarine ButterTotal Fat Increase IncreaseSaturated Fat Increase IncreaseCholesterol Decrease IncreaseTrans Fat Increase decreasea. Both present risks in regards to heart diseaseIII. Food LabelsA. Includes calories, fat, and saturated fat per servingB. Recommendations1. Fat < 30% of diet 2. Saturated Fat < 10% of dietC. Example1. Fat = 4 grams x 9 calories/gram = 36 calories2. Calories = 2003. Saturated Fat = 2 grams x 9 calories/gram = 18 calories4. 36 calories/200 calories x 100 = 18%5. 18 calories/200 calories x 100 = 9 %6. Percent Daily Value = 4 grams/65 grams = ~6%D. Percent Daily Value1. Food based on a 2000 calorie diet2. 2000 calories/30% daily fat = 600 calories/9calories/gram = ~65 grams/day3. Meant to confuse; unhelpfulE. Label Tricks1. 96% fat free means 4% fat2. This percentage refers to the weight of the fat compared to the entire weight of the serving, which is irrelevant to healthy heart guidelines (which is about caloric intake)F. The nutrition panel is most importantIV. Omega-3 Fatty AcidsA. Found in fish (recommended 1-2 servings/week)B. Reduces blood clottingC. Reduces risk of heart disease and strokeD. “thins the


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