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UMass Amherst PSYCH 370 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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PSYCH 370 1st Edition Exam # 1 Study GuideEXAM ONE STUDY GUIDE Analysis of Dream Content – In Freudian dream analysis, content is both the manifest and latent content in a dream, that is, the dream itself as it is remembered and the hidden meaning of the dream, products of ones individual psych, “royal road to the unconscious”, allow for accessibility to parts of the mind that are inaccessible through conscious thought Manifest Content – includes actual images that you see in the dream, people, animals, food, etc. Latent Content – hidden meaning of the manifest content of the dream that can be analyzed by a psychologists, melons meaning breasts Ego Function – secondary process, rational, reality principal, well developed in people, resides in conscious mind, working as an interface between ID and REALITY, driven by ID’s needs, satisfy these needs but in a realistic way, operates rationally and realizes that ID is only temporarily satisfied and plans ahead for this, source of intellectual thought, does not have sense of morality by itself Ego Failure – causes anxiety, Neurotic, Moral, and Reality anxiety occur when then ego fails Falsifiability of a Theory – an inherent possibility to prove a theory to be false, if it is possible to conceive and observation or an argument which proves the statement in question to be false it is falsifiableFreud’s Psycho Sexual Stages of Development – belowOral (0-1) – first stage of development where libido is centered on baby’s mouth, satisfaction comes from putting all sorts of things in the mouth in order to satisfy the libido, ID impulses at this stage are not controlled, oral stimulation could lead to oral fixation later in life (thumb sucking, smoking, nail biting)Anal (1-3) – libido now becomes focused on the anus, child gets pleasure from defecating, child is fully aware they are a persona and Ego has developed, wishes can bring them into conflict with the outside world, conflict tends to come to head in potty training, given restrictions on where they can defecate, nature of this conflict can determine child’s future relationship with all forms of authority can become anal-retentive (clean organized comes from strict potty training) or anal-expulsive (expulsive as a person, wants to share, messy, lax potty training)Phallic (3-6) – sensitivity now becomes concentrated on genitals and masturbation becomes new source of pleasure, becomes aware of anatomical sex differences, sets in motion the conflict between erotic attraction, resentment, rivalry, jealously, and fear, called Oedipus Complex in boys and Electra Complex in girls, resolved through a process of identification, which involves child adopting the characteristics of the same sex parentLatency (5-puberty) – no further psychosexual development takes place in this stage, libido is dormant, sexual energy can be sublimated towards schoolwork, hobbies, and friendships. Energy is channeled into developing new skills and acquiring new knowledge, play becomes confined mostly to children of the same genderGenital (puberty-adult) – time of adolescent sexual experimentation, successful resolution of which is settling down in a loving one-to-one relationship with another person in our 20’s, sexual instinct directed towards heterosexual pleasure, rather then self-pleasure, proper outlet for sexual instinct is heterosexual intercourse Freudian Explanation for Dysfunctional Behavior – if a child is improperly socialized, then they could develop a personality disturbance that causes them to direct antisocial impulses either inward or outward, those who direct them inward become neurotic, outward become criminal Freudian Notion of Libido – the quantitative magnitude of those instincts which have to do with all that may be compromised under the word love, instinct energy force, our ID, look back on developmental stages, libido drives can conflict with conventions of civilized behavior, representing in the psych by the SuperEgo, the need to conform to society and control the libido leads to tension and disturbances in the individual Gestalt Philosophy – tries to understand the laws of our ability to acquire and maintain meaningful perceptions in an apparently chaotic world, the mind forms a global whole with self-organizing tendencies, maintains that when a human mind forms a percept, or gestalt the whole has a reality of its own, independent of the other parts ID – Primary process, present at birth, pleasure principal, entirely unconscious, primitive part of psychology, engine of personality, needs instant gratification, unconnected to reality, could hallucinate what it needsPleasure Principal – the instinctive drive to seek pleasure and avoid pain, expressed by the ID ad a basic motivating force that reduces psychic tension SuperEgo – conscious, ego ideal, locus of moral sense, has image of right and wrong, wants to avoid punishment and attain approval, largely irrational due to the fact that it knows the needs of the ID have to be satisfied but will not satisfy them due to societal constraintsDefense Mechanisms – Displacement, rationalization, repression, denial, sublimation (satisfying an impulse in a socially acceptable way) Inductive Reasoning – reasoning in which the premises seek to supple strong evidence for (not absolute proof of) the truth of the conclusion Deductive Reasoning – a logical process, in which a conclusion is based on the concordance of multiple premises that are generally assumed to be true, sometimes referred to as top-down logicInstinctual Plasticity – Interaction Between Personality and Situation – personality and situation interact to create behavior, different behavior for different circumstances Levels of Analysis (Henry Murray Quote) – “every person is in certain respects like all other people, like some other people, and like no other people” (A) human nature level – universal among others (B) group difference level – morning people, risk takers, introverts (C) individual uniqueness – ways in which any given person is like no otherMoral Anxiety – fear of violating our own moral principals in order to deal with our own anxiety Neurotic Anxiety – anxiety of sufficient severity to be deemed clinical, that is indicative of a pathological, not normal stateNomothetic Psychology – the approach of investigating large groups of people in order to find general laws of behavior that applies to


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