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BIOl 152 1st Edition Lecture 8Outline of Last Lecture I. Phylogenetic treeII. How to read a phylogenetic treeOutline of Current Lecture I. Phylogeny SignificanceII. ClassificationIII. Binomial nomenclatureIV. Monophyletic group,Paraphyletic group,Polyphyletic groupCurrent LectureI. Phylogeny SignificanceThe significance of phylogeny is that it is a means that allows scientists to interpret patterns of evolutionary change; it helps trace origins of disease and helps classification of species.II. ClassificationTaxonomic classifications are information storage and retrieval systems. This system was established by Linnaeus and is still used today. The classification begins with a species, similar species then make up a genus, and similar genera make up a family. Similar families make up an order, and then similar orders make up a class. Similar classes make up a phylum and phyla forma kingdom. The species is least inclusive and the kingdom is most inclusive in this classification system.III. Binomial NomenclatureThis is a system of naming organisms in a species, the name of the genus comes first followed by the specific epithet and is usually expressed in italics. For example, humans are referred to as Homo sapiens, where homo is the genus and sapiens is the specific epithet. IV. Monophyletic group,Paraphyletic group,Polyphyletic group A monophyletic group consists of a common ancestor and all its descendants. For example, tetrapods are monophyletic because they share the same ancestor that no other taxon shares. A paraphyletic group includes a common ancestor but not all the descendants. For example, These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.reptiles include turtles, crocodiles, and snakes, but exclude birds even though they share a common ancestor. A polyphyletic group does not include the recent common ancestor and focuses on convergence similarities. For example birds and bats are a polyphyletic group because they do not share a recent common ancestor, but both have


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