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UO PSY 202 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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PSYCH 202 1st Edition Exam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1-9Chapter 1 Introduction to psychology.Describe the differences between a psychiatrist and a clinical psychologist. Describe the differentterms of psychology. Psychiatrist/Psychologist:- Psychiatrists are medical doctors (MDs) and can prescribe medication.- Clinical psychologists have PhDs and go to graduate school in psychology.Types of psychological terms:- A case study is an indepth observation of one person or a small group- t heory: proposed set of principles to organize and explain a phenomenon- hypothesis: proposed, testable relationship between two or more variables. - categorical variables: values are different members of a category- continuous variables : values vary in magnitude along some dimension - Outcome variable: variable hypothesized to show a difference when value of predictor is changed - Predictor variable: variable that is hypothesized to be associated with change in outcome- manipulated variables: predictor variables that the researcher controls and changes.- True experiment: Experimenter manipulates (controls and changes the value of) the independent variable; everything else is held constant or is randomized.- independent variable- variable the experimenter manipulates while holding other variables constant and using random assignment - dependent variable – variable whose value is hypothesized to vary according to value of independent variable Chapter 2 Types of Studies and Data collection.What are the different types of studies in psychology? What are some ways of collecting data?Types of Studies:- Longitudinal: same subjects over time- Cross-sectional: analysis of data collected from a population at one point in time- Case studies: an in-depth study of a single person or group.- Correlational: seeing if two things are connected Ways of data collecting:- Descriptive: research such as case studies, naturalistic observations and surveys are often used when it would be impossible or difficult to conduct an experiment.- Experimental: are used to demonstrate causal relationships between variables. In an experiment, the researcher systematically manipulates a variable of interest and measures the effect on another variable. Unlike correlational studies, which can only be used to determine if there is a relationship between two variables, experimental methods can be used to determine the actual nature of the relationship.- CorrelationalChapter 9Developmental Psychology.What did Piaget theorize about cognitive development? What are the differences in critical and sensitive periods of language?Piaget:According to Piaget, children are born with a very basic mental structure on which all learning and knowledge is based. His stages are sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational.Language:- Critical periods: “windows of time” in the development of an organism during which some particular development must occur. If it’s critical, the developmental change absolutely will not occur after that point. - sensitive periods: periods when a developmental change is most efficient, effective, but change can occur outside the period. Chapter 10Motivation.What are some mechanical cues about eating? What is Maslow’s theory of motivation?Mechanical cues to eat:- stomach walls contract (but not very important)- glucose and lipid sensors in blood- social cuesMaslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:5. Self-actualization4. Esteem3. Affiliation 2. Safety & security1. Basic, physiologicalChapter 11Psychology and health.What are the different types of stress responses? What are the two types of eating disorders and what causes them? Types of Stress responses:- Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome: Stage 1: alarm reaction…..Fight or flight- Taylor’s “tend and befriend” alarm reaction: under stress, affiliate with and care for othersEating Disorders:Bulimia:- mostly women (90%)- seems to be related to anxiety, depression, impulse controlAnorexia:- mostly women- prevalent in adolescence, young adulthood- seems to be related to obsessive compulsion disorder and perfectionism- more of a genetic


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