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UM PSYX 385 - Personality Psychology:4 Types of Clues Cont'd

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PSYX 385 1st Edition Lecture 2Outline of Last Lecture I. Introduction/Measurement & Methodologya. Personality Psychology: Two Aimsb. Tensions Facing Personality PsychologyII. Measurement Topicsa. Personality Measurement and Assessmentb. Testing and Assessmentc. ‘Clues’ about Personalityd. 4 Types of Clues (Funder, 2011) (Cont’d following Lecture)Outline of Current Lecture I. 4 Types of Clues (Funder, 2011) (Cont’d S Data)a. Advantagesb. DisadvantagesII. (I) Informant Dataa. Advantagesb. DisadvantagesIII. Behavioral Dataa. Natural Datab. Laboratory Datai. Advantages (Cont’d in Next Lecture)Current Lecture(S) Self Data Cont.d. MMPI-2: among the most commonly employed tests i. Originally developed in 1940’s/50’sii. Goal of the original was to allow psychologists to bring their tools of the trade to the psycho-diagnostic processiii. Criterion keying—the questions that were selected to be among those in the test booklet were identified using a criterion keying approach—‘known groups’(“criterion”) w/ common psychiatric illnesses answered t/f Qs.Ex. Of Criterion Keying Question used for Depression-- my home life is satisfying, True or FalseThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.a. Depressed group’s responses (t v f) contrasted with ‘normals’ (people not currently under treatment for depression)i. depression group (true:20%; false:80%); Control (normals)(true:90,false:10)b. items that ‘discriminated’ between depressed group and ‘normals’ joined the ‘Depressed’ scalec. MMPI-2 was then ‘normed’Illustrating the use of norms: Optimism When given a questionnaire used to determine optimism…1.) scoring: reversed items 3,7, 9 (4=0,3=1,2=2,1=3,0=4)a. sum: 1,3,4,7,9,102.) college student norms:a. mean= 14; standard deviation=4(S) Self Data cont’d:ADVANTAGES:1.) simple and informative way to tap conscious thoughts/feelings2.) Interviews: Flexible and richDISADVANTAGES:1.) assumes accuracy; limited to accessible data(I) Informant data: Ask someone else…“Parents are usually the most knowledgeable about their child’s behavior across time and situations.” (Achenbach, 1991)E.g., CBCL: Child Behavior Checklist (Parent, Teacher)E.g., Peer nomination procedures (bullying)ADVANTAGES:1.) data from the natural environmenta. teacher observes a child with peers;2.) large ‘database’ via observation across time and settingsDISADVANTAGES:1.) limited access to information2.) requires judgmenta. bias: something other than construct of interest systematically influences outcome(B) Behavioral data: watch the examinee1.) Natural data: observe target directly-e.g., prosocial behavior in classroom-e.g., mental status exam on interview2.) Laboratory data: multiple types1.) “projective” measures:a. traditional view, these tap unconscious processesi. contemporary label= performance-based measures1. observe perceptual organization performance and motivation2.) physiological tests: measure bodily functionsa. e.g., EEG, PET, fMRIADVANTAGES1.) can access otherwise inaccessible dataa. performance-based tap different material2.) Demand characteristics can be ambiguous3.) Some are low inference/objectivea. Projectives are exceptedCont’d in next


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