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U of M ARTH 1001 - Ancient South Asian Art

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List of works:ARTH 1001 1st Edition Lecture 5 Outline of Last Lecture I. Shanga. Si Mu Wub. Piece Mold CastingII. Western Zhou, Spring and Autumn, Warring StatesIII. Warring States (481-221 BCE)IV. Western Han/Eastern Hana. Mawangdui, Changsha (Hunan): family cemetery of Li Can (d. 186 BCE), Marquis of ChangshaOutline of Current Lecture I. StupasII. Dream of MayaIII. Meditation of BuddhaIV. Gift of the Jetavana GardenV. Vidhura Pandita JatakaVI. Golden Deer JatakaVII. The Great Stupa at Sanchi VIII. Conversion of the KashyapasIX. Overcoming MaraX. East GateCurrent LectureDate: February 5, 2015Title: Ancient South Asian ArtProfessor: Frederick AsherReadings:Art through the Ages, Book C, pp. 422-32.Terms:These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- Stupa: A large, mound-shaped Buddhist shrine (Book C, 429, 430)- Reliquary: A container for holding relics (Book C, 430)- Shunga Dynasty, 185-72 BCE: an ancient Indian dynasty from Magadha that controlled vast areas of the Indian Subcontinent from around 185 to 72 BCE. The dynasty was established by Pushyamitra Sunga after the fall of the Maurya Empire.- Andhra Dynasty, 72 BCE – 3rd century CE: a royal Indian dynasty based from Kotilingala,Telangana as well as Junnar (Pune) and Prathisthan (Paithan) in Maharashtra. The territory of the empire covered much of India from 230 BCE onward. The Satavahanas are credited for establishing peace in the country, resisting the onslaught of foreigners after the decline of Mauryan Empire.- The Buddha: a title applied toGautama Siddhartha, a nobleman and religious teacher of Northern India, regarded by his followers as the most recent re-discoverer of the path toenlightenment: the founderof Buddhism- Bodhisattva: In Buddhist thought, a potential Buddha who chooses not to achieve enlightenment in order to save humanity (Book C, 427)- Jataka: Tales of the past life of the Buddha (Book C, 430)- Circumambulation: In Buddhist worship, walking around the stupa in a clockwise direction, a process intended to bring the worshiper into harmony with the cosmos (Book C, 430)List of works:- Birth of the Buddha, 185-72 BCE, sandstone, Indian Museum, Kolkata- Enlightenment of the Buddha, 185-72 BCE, sandstone, Indian Museum, Kolkata- Vidhura Pandita Jataka, 185-72 BCE, sandstone, Indian Museum, Kolkata- Golden Deer Jataka, 185-72 BCE, sandstone, Indian Museum, Kolkata- Conversion of the Kashyapas, 72 BCE-1 BCE, sandstone, in situ, Sanchi- The Buddha Overcoming Mara, 72 BCE-1 BCE, sandstone, in situ Sanchi- Return of the Buddha, 72 BCE-1 BCE , sandstone, in situ SanchiI. Stupas- Ashoka took Buddha’s remains from the original eight stupas and spread them throughout India in thousands of stupas.- Worshipper (nun/monk) walks clockwise around the stupa in an attempt to bring themselves into harmony with the cosmosThe remains of theBuddha/his closedisciples wereenshrined in stupas(shown in image). Theworship of relicsbecame central toBuddhism after hisdeath- The reliquary is placed within the stupa beforeconstruction is completed, then the construction iscompleted to seal the reliquary completely. Stupa Railing from Bharhut (Indian Museum, Kolkata)The most elaborate stupas were provided with stone railings that were elegantly carved with relief sculpturesII. Dream of Maya- The Birth of the Blessed One- 2nd Century, 1st Century BCE- Buddha’s Mother, Queen Maya- Maya had a dream that a white elephantflew over her and entered her womb- Her dream was interpreted to mean that ten months and ten days later she would give birth to a Blessed One, who would turn into a universal monarch or would leave on a religious journey and would eventually become enlightened.Meditation of BuddhaThe lines converge at the bottom (opposite ofEuropean rendering)III. Gift of theJetavana Garden- Banker gave the Buddhaenough gold to buy theJetavana - Contract was sealed bypouring water on theground- Two fingers in mouthmeans amazementV. Vidhura Pandita Jataka185-72 BCENaga (Demigod) came down to terrestrial kingThe terrestrial king wagered kingdom against magical flying horse in a throw of the diceThe demigod took Vidhura Pandita instead of the kingdom Naga King tellsVidhura Pandita tohold his horse’s tail,then drags himagainst the rocks totry to kill himbecause the NagaQueen wantsVidhura Pandita’sheartQueen does notwant his literalheart, he wants hisspiritual heart, asshown on right as the king asks her whichshe meantScenes clustered according to WHERE they take place, NOT WHEN they take placeVI. Golden DeerJatakaGolden Deer savesservant of kingThe deer toldservant not to tellanyone where hecould be found,because the deerdid not want to behunted for his hideClustered by wherethey take place, notwhenVII. The Great Stupa atSanchi (Approx 72 BCE-12BCE)- Andhra(Satavahana)Dynasty- 72. BCE-3rdCentury CE- Time ofKingSatakarniVIII. Conversion ofthe KashyapasThe Buddhawanted to crossthe river but theferryman wassleeping. He began to walkacross the water,gathering theamazement of theonlookers.IX. Overcoming MaraMara sent his daughters to seduce the Buddha in an attempt to get him to forfeit his quest for enlightenmentSent his demonic followers when his daughters failedUmbrella: device that recognizes the appearance/existence of royaltyX.EastGateThe Buddha approached his father’s (the King) palace, his father greeted him and asked him to stay the rainyseason with him. He told him he would be granted a garden. To prove he was worthy, the Buddha


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