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COMM 122 1st EditionLecture 4Outline of Last LectureI. InternationalComparisons: Historical Development of Mass CommunicationII. Advertisers and Live ShowsIII. Top Global Shows IV. 1960’s-1980’s: Controversy over Cultural Imperialism IV. Licensing Ideas of ProductionV. Historical Context that Allowed Media Programming to EmergeOutline of Current LectureI. Top Shows WatchedII. Media Technologies ImpactsIII. Programming TodayIV. LawsV. Emergence of BroadcastingVI. KDKAVII.Purpose of ProgrammingVIII.Cross LicensingCurrent Lecture1983: Mash finally attracted 106 million people (60% of all households with television)• #1 Most watched show2010: SuperBowl attracted 106.5 million (45%) Smaller percentage of people were watching2011: SuperBowl attracted 111.0 million 2012: SuperBowl attracted 111.3 millionThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is bestused as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.2013: SuperBowl attracted 108.4million 2014: SuperBowl attracted112.2 million 2015: SuperBowlattracted 114.4 million 49.7% of allhouses watching itHuge night for social media— posting commentsTiVo: rates the most engaging commercialsDish: the hopper— can be set to automatically skip commercials• Networks upset— people don’t watch commercials—-they lose money • Can be set to only record the commercials and not the content Media technologies have impacts apart from context:• (“The medium is the message”) - Normally we think of it as something that carries the message - Affects on how we perceive the world • Telegraph: first long distance point to point communication—eliminatedspace - Telephone: added sounds and voices • Morse code: combination of dots that make up words and numbers • Wireless: allows point to point communication without wires - Developed by many people - James Clerk Maxwell (theoretical paper 1873) radio waves (invisiblewaves of electromagnetic energy energy • Can travel long distance, pass through buildings and solid objects andtravel long distances- Heinrich Hertz showed how to detect them— proved radio wavesexisted- Marconi: obsessed with the idea of electricity and waves • Hertzian waves— Lodge receiver— idea of Banley— Antenna—Make a bell ring across the room without wires - British interested in it for their navy - Turned technology into massive industry - Nicola Tesla: said to have made the technology to send the firstsignal— first Broadcast - Reginald Fessenden: if it was going to be possible • Can’t send voices if it is going out in a burst or pulse— has to becontinuous - Ernst Alexanderson: built the generator to make the waves gocontinuously - Lee DeForest- powered radios, televisionsCarbon PlatinumfilamentPlate•Allowed the signal to be amplified•Coast to coast communicationoooooooooooooooooo•Electrodes attracted from the negativeto the positiveNegativelyPositivelyCharged Charged(-) (+)TRIODEoooooooooo = electrodes•Triode: bent wire in the middle of the electrodes•Small amount of current that applied to that wire could control the flow of electrons•Allowed electronics to happen•Broadcasted first commercial, election results— 40 years later was apposed to the way the radio had developed—1946: wrote open letter complaining (against commercials)Programming Today:• Patterns of technological development led to certain Corporalarrangements • Corporal arrangements had certain relationships to the government,people• Government was not involved— Corporations had the money,engineers, researchers— Developed patent • WWI: said they needed the radio during the war • Said they were going to pool together all the tools and make a system— use new technology for the war— wireless telegraphs— point topoint • After the War: Broadcasting started to emerge, Networks;corporate control, commercial sponsorship, Regulations— radio Actof 1927 Laws:• Radio Act of 1912: First law— If anyone wants to send wireless signals,you need a license— only have to apply at the Secretary of Commerce,can’t be refused Everything so far sets the stage for the emergence of Broadcasting:• Huge cultural, social, and politicaltransformation David Sarnoff: mediacelebrity • (14- 16 years old) Radio operator who received the SOS signals from theTitanic • Wrote the Music Box memo in 1916 • Music in homes • People said radio was too advanced— too complicated • Navy controlled radio— has to force the American MarconiCorporation to dissolve • American Marconi (British company) dissolved— sold to General Electricand created the Radio Corporation of America (dominate radio controller in the US)• 1932- RCA independent Sarnoff President; Chairman until 1969 KDKA:• Transmitted by wireless• Transmitted by telephony: voices not beeps • To the public • A continuous program service • Licensed by the government Purpose of Programming: Convince people to go out and buy radio receivers— how they make money— aiming at the general public, anyone can operate a radio• Patent ruling— no law suits, pool everything together— differentcorporations owned different pieces Cross licensing agreement:• Phase I: 1919-1923: GE WH (Manufacture), RCA (Sell receivers), AT&T(Manufacture and lease transmitters, control long lines and phones) • GE, WH, RCA: Radio group— WJZ • Created their own programming (own content— sell receivers) • AT&T: Telephone group—WEAF • Thought radio should be a common carrier • Carries other people’s technology (other people’s content)— ifpeople want to send a message, pay a toll (Common carrier; TollBroadcasting) • Want to manufacture radios— they said no because of the crosslicensing— denied what they agreed to • 1926: Closed their phone booth of the year • Phase II: 1926: • AT&T keeps control of telephones • AT&T keeps control of wire and wireless relays • RCA will release relays (network— if they want to interconnect totheir relays— have to pay)• AT&T and WEAFRCA creates NBC (2 networks: could compete against each other)• Before 1926— the two major groups disagreed and were in conflict witheach other (what to be in control of) • 1928: William Paley creates CBS 1922: No one wanted


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