TAMU NUTR 202 - Final Exam Study Guide (74 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

Previewing pages 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74 of actual document.

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Final Exam Study Guide


All lectures 1-24

Study Guide
Texas A&M University
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NUTR 202 1nd Edition Final Exam Study Guide Lectures 1 24 CH1 Nutrients A substance in food that provides energy and structure to the body and regulates body processes Calories Unit by which energy is measured Food energy is measured in Calories or kilocalories 1000 calories 1 kcals Fortified foods Foods in which one or more essential nutrients have been added Milk vitamin D Flour and bread iron B Vitamins salt iodine ONLY ONES REGULATED Phytochemicals are found in plant based foods fruits vegetables grains and beans Functional Foods Provide health benefits and disease preventing properties beyond basic nutritional functions Nutrition is a science that is constantly evolving As new scientific information about nutrition and health are discovered and verified new nutritional principles and recommendations develop These nutrition principles and recommendations are based on information derived from a scientific process or method Epidemiology Observational studies Studies populations Disease trends and patterns Does not prove cause and effect Clinical intervention trials Done in humans control group and experimental group A variable is changed btw groups of people Compares one group receiving a treatment to another group that is not Laboratory experiments Animal studies Biochemical biological studies Very controlled The Dietary Reference Intakes DRIs Nutrients Needs numbers The Dietary Guidelines for Americans Broad Dietary Advice mostly for professionals MyPlate Help you implement DRIs and DGA mostly for the population The Nutrition Facts Contain the Daily Values can help you decide which foods to buy DRIs Recommendations for the amount of energy nutrients and other food components for Healthy Persons Appropriate for people of different gender stages of life Estimated Average Requirement EAR Average amount of a nutrient known to meet the needs of individuals in population Meets the needs of 50 of a population Used to assess adequacy of populations Recommended Dietary Allowance RDA Based on the EAR but set higher Average amount of a nutrient that meets the needs of nearly all individuals 97 98 of same age and sex Adequate Intake AI If insufficient scientific data to determine EAR and RDA Next best estimate of amount of nutrient needed to maintain good health Tolerable Upper Intake Level UL Highest amount of nutrient that is unlikely to cause harm if consumed daily Consuming amount higher than the UL daily may cause toxicity Estimated Energy Requirements EERs Definition Average energy intake values predicted to maintain weight in healthy individuals The formula to calculate one s EER takes into account an individual s age gender weight height level of physical activity Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges AMDR Definition Proportion of total kcals that should come from carbohydrate protein and fat Recommended ranges of intakes for energy yielding nutrients Lists contents in order from most abundant to least abundant based on weight Required for foods with more than one ingredient Helpful for people with allergies or who are avoiding certain ingredients for example animal products HEALTHY low in the bad stuff but 10 A C Fe Ca Protein or Fiber FRESH raw never frozen or heated no preservatives HIGH SOURCE 20 or more of Daily Value a k a High Rich Excellent Source GOOD SOURCE 10 19 Daily Value MORE at least 10 of D V a k a Fortified Enriched Added CH3 Digestion We ingest food so its digested into small particles absorbed and the food we don t absorb will be eliminated What is process of how food is in your body THROUGH ABSORBTION Digestion occurs in the Gastrointestinal Tract GI GI Tract Path Long tube Mouth pharynx esophagus sphincter stomach sphincter small intestine sphincter large intestine rectum anus Digestion is Mechanical and Chemical Mechanical Digestion Breakdown of food into smaller pieces through chewing and or moving it through the GI tract through peristalsis Chemical Digestion Breakdown of the large molecules of food into smaller absorbable molecules It involves digestive juices and enzymes Digestion allows us to Absorb Nutrients from Foods small intestine Chemical Mucus is secreted from mucosal cells lining the digestive tract Moistens lubricates and protects Enzymes speed up reactions In the dig tract they help breakdown larger molecules into smaller ones Hormones chemicals secreted from cells which travel through the bloodstream to signal cells in another part of the body Mechanical Peristalsis Muscular contractions in a wavelike manner that moves food through the GI tract and mixes it with the enzymes juices Food passes thru lumen Layer around lumen in mucosa rel mucus and gastric HCl acid Surrounding nerves capillaries Muscularis 2 layers of muscles one longitudinal one diagonal produce peristalsis In stomach has three layers circular MUCOSA is CLOSEST TO LUMEN Gastrointestinal tract The GI tract is a series of hollow organs joined in a tube from the mouth to the anus Food passes through the digestive tract Accessory organs include the salivary glands liver gall bladder and pancreas Food does not pass through these organs Lumen is the inside part of the digestive tract which still is considered technically outside the body Liver makes bile and gallbladder stores it Pancreas once food in SI it will rel pancreatic juice with enzymes Ingestion Food enters the GI tract not inside the body via the mouth Mechanical and chemical digestion begins Saliva Secreted from salivary glands after the sight smell or presence of food Contains lubricants enzymes and other substances Teeth Chewing Break down food particles Tongue Helps mix food and aids chewing Bolus formed Pharynx Responsible of swallowing Part of the digestive system and respiratory system Epiglottis small flap which blocks food from entering wind pipe during swallowing Esophagus Muscular tube that propels food into the stomach through peristalsis Lower Esophageal Sphincter muscular ring at end of esophagus normally tightly closed relaxes to allow food to pass into the stomach Stomach 3 muscle layers longitudinal circular and diagonal Circular folds keep it moving chyme is a combination of food and different gastric juices Temporary storage of food Stomach lining produces gastric juice containing Water Hydrochloric acid pH of HCL is 1 0 1 Kill microrganims 2 unfolds proteins 3 activates pepsin 4 inhibits amylase Pepsinogen 1 Activated into digestive enzyme pepsin Mucus 1 Protects stomach lining from pepsin and

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