TAMU NUTR 202 - End of CH 11 (9 pages)

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End of CH 11

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End of CH 11


END of Ch11 - Breastfeeding benefit; who cannot breast feed; nutrient requirements and differences btw infants; growth rate of infants

Lecture number:
Lecture Note
Texas A&M University
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NUTR 202 1nd Edition Lecture 22 Ch 11 cont Remember colostrum has antibodies not found in formula It also includes the hormones that are related to food intake and helps the baby to know when hungry full Breast Milk is Best for an Infant s Unique Nutritional Needs Composition changes as infant grows Colostrum milk produced just after birth compared to mature milk it contains more antibodies protein minerals Vit A and less fat Milk production Synthesis of milk components Stimulated by pituitary hormone prolactin Release of milk from milk producing glands and movement through the milk ducts to the nipple Stimulated by pituitary hormone oxytocin Inhibited by nervous tension fatigue or embarrassment Let down Breast Feeding Helps with Pregnancy Recovery and Reduces the Risk of Some Chronic Diseases Oxytocin causes uterine contractions that help the uterus to return to normal size more quickly Increases energy expenditure which may speed return to pre pregnancy weight Inhibits ovulation lengthening the time between pregnancies Lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes breast ovarian cancer Improves bone density Breast Feeding Protects Against Infections Allergies and Chronic Diseases and May Enhance Brain Development Decreases risk and severity of diarrhea meningitis respiratory ear and urinary tract infections Lactoferrin protein in breast milk binds IRON making it unavailable to bacteria Reduces risks of asthma leukemia heart diseases and diabetes Might help infants with their intellectual development Development of facial muscles speech tooth formation Reduces chance of overfeeding Additional calories needs for mom while breastfeeding from nutrient dense diet pregnant women less than breastfeeding 500 EXTRA CALORIES during first 6 mos of lactation 170 Calories from fat stores Potential weight loss of 2 pounds week Only 320 Calories from food first 6 months During the second 6 months 400 Calories day from food Protein needs Increased by 25g day above DRI Mom needs to consume adequate fluid additional 1 Liter therefore 3 7 L Avoid alcohol and illicit drugs limit caffeine and follow FDA s guidelines on fish consumption Talk to physician regarding medications because can pass into breast milk Even expand to 1 2 years breastfeeding Formula better option when 1 Some women may not be able to breast feed Women infected with HIV AIDS human T cell leukemia or active tuberculosis receiving chemotherapy and or radiation or use illegal drugs should not breast feed Infants with galactosemia can t metabolize lactose shouldn t be breast fed Women taking prescription medications should check with health care provider regarding safety 2 Formula can be a healthy alternative to Breast feeding The best alternative is commercially made formula Cow s milk cannot be used less FAT CONTENT and fat needs to be the main component of baby s diet Too much protein casein difficult for infant to digest Kidneys can t break down excrete Too low in fat too high in sodium and potassium Iron is poorly absorbed Cow s milk cause intestinal blood loss anemia Too big of protein Increase risk of developing allergy to cow s milk Infant birth 1 year old Infants grow at an ACCELERATED RATE Nutrient needs increased with rapid rate of growth Birth weight 4 6 mo Birth weight should triple by 12 months Most infants 50 Growth charts used to monitor rate of growth Compare weight length or head circumference to the population Ranking or percentile indicates where the infant s growth falls in relation to population standards Baby of 8 lbs 16 lbs 24 lbs at end of year And length increase by 50 and head size enlarged Infant Growth tracked using growth charts Slight variations normal should follow a normal increase in height vs weight Failure to Thrive inability to remain on normal growth curve Causes Maybe congenital condition disease poor diet neglect abuse psychosocial problems Based on these tables height weight head circumference determine if baby is healthy or not Infant specific Nutrient Needs Calories 0 6 months 108 Cals kg Body Weight Protein 9 1 g day first 6 months then 11 g day NEED Fat esp essential fatty acids Infants Risk Deficiencies for 3 Micronutrients Vitamin K injection needed at birth Due to sterile gut usually non essential but GI tract of infant in immature and don t produce vitamin K therefore inject immediately Vitamin D drops needed unless on formula that contains this vitamin and consuming 1L day Iron stores generally last for 6 months Iron enriched foods should be introduced at 4 6 months Breast milk does not have a lot of iron The bioavailability is HIGHER in breast milk yet quantity is depleted at 6mo Why you need to make sure a 6 month baby gets SOLID foods FORTIFIED IN IRON Calorie Energy Recommendations made for three age groups 0 3 months 4 6 months 7 12 months More calories in small stomach ENERGY DENSE diet vs your nutrient dense diet FREQUENT SMALL ENERGY DENSE MEALS MORE WATER per kg body high urine output evaporation In adult we always want nutrient dense not energy dense yet for infant that is the most important US health professionals recommend exclusive breast feeding for 6 months and breast feeding with complementary foods for at least 1 year and as long thereafter as mutually desired Complementary foods can be started at 6 months why decided this The fat the amt mom built during pregnancy will start to decrease and iron storage will deplete May eat solid foods once certain milestones are reached First the infant must be nutritionally ready e g at 6 mos infant iron stores are depleted Must be physiologically ready GI tract can t process solid foods in early infancy and kidney function not fully developed Tongue thrust reflex fades at 4 6 months Swallowing skills matured adequately Voluntary muscle control e g can sit up with support head neck control Ability to turn his her head to indicate I m full Solid foods should be introduced gradually to make sure the infant isn t allergic or intolerant One new food per week Rice cereal is a great first food least allergy causing and not sweet Other grains then vegetables then fruits over a period of months Foods to omit Sweets and baby desserts sugar alcohols canned foods and honey 6 Months Introduce ONE SINGLE BASIC food at a time e g strained vegetables fruits meats WHY this strategy Allergies Develop taste Variety is key to healthy diet Offer Assortment support better choices LATER in life 9 Months Teeth Can chew ready for applesauce ripe banana

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