TAMU NUTR 202 - Exam 3 Study Guide (31 pages)

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Exam 3 Study Guide

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Exam 3 Study Guide


Lectures 18-24 Complete with important diagrams and everything stared in class.

Study Guide
Texas A&M University
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NUTR 202 1nd Edition Exam 3 Lectures 18 24 Ch 10 Nutrition Fitness and Physical Activity Exercise is a type of physical activity that s planned and structure Aerobic exercise uses oxygen to produce energy that increase heart rate Endurance exercises jogging cycling swimming Zumba lifting weights Physical activity movement that enhances health uses energy Activities range from walking lifting weights playing sports resulting in expending calories Talk test is a simple way to measure intensity of PA Moderate intensity physical activity you can talk but not sing during activity Vigorous intensity physical activity will not be able to say more than a few words during activity improves FITNESS and expends more E than moderate intensity Benefits of PA Flexibility and Balance diabetes prevention management cardiovascular health cancer prevention Increases muscle mass osteoporosis prevention and weight management Exercise increases the sensitivity of tissues to insulin and decreases risk of developing type 2 diabetes strengthens heart muscle increase BMR increase expenditure lowers BP increases HDL levels reduces risk of color breast cancer increases muscle mass Improved self esteem reduces depression reduces stress Physical Fitness ability to perform routine PA without undue fatigue determined by a combination of regular activity and or genetically inherited ability Fitness is not restricted to an athlete or to a son daughter of a famous athlete Physical fitness can be gained overtime The concept that the body will adapt to the stress placed on it Overload Principle isn t overtraining Gradual increase in exercise demands frequency intensity time or type but without the potential of injury Good nutrition regular PA Health Fitness Optimal nutrition athletic performance Regular exercise ability to use and store nutrients optimally Physical fitness program should include components of PA fitness at least 150 minutes moderate intensity FITT principles overload principle Components of Physical Fitness Cardiorespiratory endurance Muscle strengthening endurance Flexibility Body composition Cardiorespiratory endurance Utilizes the cardiovascular and respiratory systems Aerobic exercise Effects of regular cardiorespiratory endurance Increases Amount of blood pumped w each heartbeat and oxygen delivery to muscles Decreases Resulting heart rate Improves aerobic capacity efficiency of oxygen and nutrient delivery to cells to fuel activity Exercise builds and maintains muscles strength training exercises or resistance exercise Ability to push pull lift a weight for a brief time muscle strength The ability to perform repetitive muscle activity for long period muscle endurance Both improve with regular exercise that requires moving against a resisting force Flexibility ability to bend and stretch muscles and ligaments Benefits Improves performance and may reduce risk of injuries Body composition in those who exercise regularly Generally increased in muscle and decreased in fat Gender and age differences Want more lean body mass than body fat percentage Exercise Aids in Weight Management Increased lean body mass uses more E increases BMR increases Energy Out can eat more calories and still maintain healthy weight Transition to new healthier habits patterns lifestyle choices permanent changes Successful Physical fitness program Incorporates activities based on the five components of fitness Tailored to meet needs of individual specificity Progressive overload principle Rest and recovery Follow the Dietary Guidelines for Physical Activity Developing a Fitness Program should include all components of exercise Cardiorespiratory Aerobic exercise do most days of the week Muscle strength and endurance 2 3 days per week at beginning of exercise program Not on consecutive days Flexibility 2 7 days per week Body composition Change in progressive manner to provide overload principle frequency intensity time and type Per 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans for reduced risk of chronic disease moderate exercise recommended for 30 min day most days of the week 150 minutes week of moderate intensity Or 75 minutes week of vigorous intensity For additional health benefit and healthy weight Increase duration or intensity of exercise ACSM Exercise Recommendations Moderate Intensity Minimum of 150 min per week 150 200 min per week lose weight prevent weight gain The recommendation is 10 000 steps day to prevent chronic diseases maintain healthy weight Aerobic activity duration of activity which days Move more choose activities you enjoy walk more take stairs and find friends to do activities with Set specific goals stay motivated vary exercise and keep your exercise safe Ingredients for Fitness Regular PA right foods fluids Body will use glucose for E regardless of intake macronutrient Glucose is stored as glycogen in liver and in muscles If low blood sugar release glucagon stimulate the liver to break down glycogen to glucose bloodstream Metabolism chemical process that converts nutrients to energy ATP Occurs in muscle Either have glycogen or FAs main source of nutrients and you need oxygen to get energy Myoglobin stores oxygen in muscle Anaerobic without oxygen only uses glucose and generates lactic acid Aerobic with oxygen uses glucose protein fat more efficient produces more ATP per glucose and occurs in mitochondria Glucose is used solely in anaerobic metabolism In muscle 525 g stored in liver 100g and 25 g in blood Therefore 650g CHO X 4 2600 calories that can be used In your muscle you have 1 050 calories 2 hours of exercise Glycogen in liver is to regulate blood glucose levels especially for brain Remember this store is limited FAs stored in adipose tissue unlimited Which nutrient can be used to produce energy in the absence of oxygen GLUCOSE anaerobic Source of fuel used during exercise depends on duration of exercise and intensity of exercise Immediate source of energy for body functions Adenosine Triphosphate or ATP What type of energy metabolism is used during the first few minutes of exercise Anaerobic can only use glucose for fuel Energy metabolism in the muscles Adenosine triphosphate ATP that was stored Creatine phosphate CP ATP and CP used up in 15 seconds After these stores are used up Glucose converted to ATP Long term exercise After 2 minutes of exercise oxygen delivery to muscles increased shift to predominantly aerobic metabolism more efficient at producing energy more ATP Fuel source Glucose FAs

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