TAMU NUTR 202 - Ch 12 (8 pages)

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Ch 12

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Ch 12


Nutr for our Grandparents and alcohol consumption

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Lecture Note
Texas A&M University
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NUTR 202 1nd Edition Lecture 24 Nutrition for Grandparents Benefits of good nutrition into adult years Keeps you active and improves quality of life prevents malnutrition and delays onset of chronic diseases In U S life expectancy is in the 80 s Remaining healthy healthy life expectancy is only 70 years Definition of Aging Accumulation of changes associated with and responsible for an ever increasing susceptibility to disease and death Process include Loss of cells and cell fxn occurs Effects are not felt for many years because organisms start with more cells and cell function than needed Reduced ability to repair damage and resist infection DRIs include four adult age groups Young adulthood ages 19 30 Middle age ages 31 50 Adulthood ages 51 70 Older adulthood over age 70 ENERGY WILL DECREASE btw adulthood and older adulthood increased vitamins minerals As you age E requirements will be less but not less nutrition Energy needs in elderly Decrease with decreasing LBM decreasing BMR Need for other nutrients Stays the same or increases To meet these changes Consume nutrient dense foods phytochemicals dense Body Composition Energy Needs in Older Adults At same weight have less muscle mass fatter BOLD IS BEST BIG COLOR AND BIG FLAVOR 5 9 servings a day fiber to prevent constipation hemorrhoids and diverticulosis Older adults need to get enough fiber and water to help reduce the risk of constipation and diverticulosis As we age there is a reduction in sense of Thirst Physiological effects of aging reduces ability to conserve water in the Kidneys Risk of dehydration increases The DRI for vitamin D and Calcium increase for the older adult to reduce risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures Accelerated bone loss after menopause Needs increase after the age of 50 for women After 70 for men As we age the ability of skin to make Vitamin D less activation less Ca transport to bones from sunlight declines also reduced sun exposure Vitamin D RDA 600 IU 600 800 for those 71 and older Due to reduced stomach acid production as we get older people over 50 may have decreased absorption of B12 from foods Need to consume B12 fortified foods and supplements B12 is one vitamin that is found in only animal sources In elderly might be taking antacids less HCl less IF less B12 absorption This reduced stomach acid secretion atrophic gastritis results in Reduced ability to release protein in foods May also lead to reduces absorption of Iron calcium folate vitamin K The 3 B Vitamins that collectively could be heart healthy Folic Acid Vit B 12 Vit B 6 Elderly negative nitrogen balance therefore need B6 and folic acid role in DNA synthesis therefore help produce body proteins Also helps in reducing homocysteine Risk of deficiency for iron May be due to Increased intestinal blood losses Poor absorption due to low stomach acid Decreased intake from diet May develop anemia Microcytic vs macrocytic Physiological changes with aging Decreased muscle size and strength Lack of exercise may contribute May result in impaired mobility and balance Increased risk of falls and fractures Decline of immune system Increased risk of infection cancers Increased need for medications may result that affect Appetite nutrient absorption or metabolism Acute or chronic illnesses MORE than 75 Can result in change in nutrient requirements and Impair ability to obtain and prepare food Organ dysfunction kidney failure and BP alter phosphate intake impacts nutrition Physical disabilities Arthritis most common physical disability in older adults Osteoarthritis less mobile greater risk falling and injury breaking bones Arthritis cartilage is reduced pain will limit elderly in how they purchase and prepare food Decreased Mental Status Impaired memory thinking or judgment severe enough to cause personality changes and affect daily activities and relationships with others Dementia Can be caused multiple strokes alcoholism dehydration medication side effects vitamin B 12 deficiency Also Alzheimer s disease Depression Meeting nutrient needs Foods must be nutrient dense not energy dense Plant based foods contain phytochemicals antioxidants Supplements may be necessary in some older adults vitamin D Ca and B12 Benefits of physical activity for older adult Extend number of active independent years Improve quality of life Reduce risk of disability Economic and emotional conditions can affect nutritional health Depression lonesomeness Food insecurity May struggle to cover medical costs prescription costs and living expenses and have limited income left for food Other reasons inability to shop for self prepares food or consumes food Assistance includes congregate meals and nutrition education home delivery Moderate alcohol consumption In moderation Alcohol is safe to consume and may be beneficial Definition of moderation One drink daily or less for adult women Two drinks daily or less for men A serving size includes Beer 12 oz Liquor 1 5 oz or 1 oz Glass of wine 5 oz Alcohol intake in excess Can lead to chronic health problems Standard Drink Size 14 g Alcohol 7 Cals gram EMPTY CALORIES Absorption and Metabolism of alcohol Small amount alcohol absorbed alcohol stomach Most alcohol is absorbed from the Small intestine Enters bloodstream Peak blood alcohol level 1 hour after ingestion To be detoxified must go to the Liver Alcoholic liver disease The fatty liver or alcoholic hepatitis stage Reversible if alcohol consumption stopped At cirrhotic stage Irreversible and often fatal Nutritional impact of alcohol intake 7 kcal g energy dense Excess calories alcoholic drinks Alters nutrient absorption and or metabolism Inflammation of stomach pancreas intestine What B vitamin is at risk of being low in those who consume alcohol in excess Thiamin Deficiency disease Cancers associated with excess alcohol intake include Mouth esophagus stomach colon liver breast Excess alcohol intake also associated with Increased risk of hypertension heart disease stroke This increased risk may be related to Increased visceral fat Benefits of alcohol intake If consumed in moderation Increase HDL cholesterol Inhibit formation of blood clots This may reduce the risk of Heart disease stroke Benefit possibly related to phytochemicals Resveratrol found in red wine other foods Do not consume if you are pregnant planning on becoming pregnant have certain medical conditions on certain medications Consume only in moderation 2 drinks or less per day for male 1 drink or less per day for

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