TAMU NUTR 202 - CH 11 Pregnancy and Infancy Nutrition Cont. (6 pages)

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CH 11 Pregnancy and Infancy Nutrition Cont.

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CH 11 Pregnancy and Infancy Nutrition Cont.


Additional nutritional needs and discomforts among pregnant women. Recommendations to avoid during pregnancy; potential complications; teenage pregnancy.

Lecture number:
Lecture Note
Texas A&M University
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NUTR 202 1nd Edition Lecture 21 Vitamin and mineral needs Folate natural in bananas legumes spinach promote cell division and DNA production For mother Prevent macrocytic anemia Recommended intake before during pregnancy 400 mcg from folic acid 200 mcg addition intake from folate Total 600mcg Need before during and after Additional IRON needed for production of additional red blood cells prevent anemia and for fetal growth and development Usually supplemented since difficult to meet needs with diet Part of components of gaining weight is increase in bld volume need more hemoglobin therefore need iron Don t want to intake with Ca bc competes Additional zinc needed for synthesis of proteins RNA and DNA synthesis Vitamin A Deficiency poor fetal growth Excess before very early in pregnancy risk of facial heart malformations remember fetal pictures Beta carotene precursor to Vit A not harmful Limit Retinol and Vit A containing medications e g Acutane retinoic acid for acne Balance Diet meets MOST nutrients needs BUT NOT eating for two adults Need 20 more calories Need 50 more Folate Vit B6 Iron Zinc Iodine Protein Need adequate calcium absorption doubles May need more VIT D Prenatal Supplements needed even on a good diet Pregnant Moms risk not getting enough Ca Vit D Folate Vit B 12 Fe Zn Discomforts of Pregnancy Physiological changes during pregnancy can cause uncomfortable side effects for the mother These can include Edema increased blood volume morning sickness hormone related heartburn and constipation hemorrhoids During the first trimester the mother is beginning to notice a newly heightened sense of taste or smell and perhaps some sickness and cravings Morning sickness nausea 70 and or vomiting 37 58 any time of day or night usually in 1st trimester Eat small frequent snacks of dry starchy foods avoid greasy foods spicy foods caffeine cook in areas with good ventilation on walking and rise slowly Common cravings Ice cream sweets candy citrus fruits chocolate fish chips pickles Common aversions coffee highly seasoned foods fried foods Pica craving for and ingestion of nonfood items clay ice hair laundry starch ashes with little or no nutrition may lead to iron deficiency More common in AA women rural women and or with family history traditions During 2nd and 3rd trimester PROGESTERONE helps relax muscles Crowding of GI tract might cause Heartburn Limit high fat spicy foods avoid heartburn causing substances eat small frequent meals remain upright after eating Constipation and hemorrhoids Maintain moderate level of physical activity and consume plenty of fluids and high fiber foods Critical Periods of Development time of rapid cell division or differentiation or migration and organization in specialized tissues or organs varies depending on tissue organ once completed fate of cells tissue organ set not reversible no do overs Why embryonic stage is so important Def in folate folic acid or excess preformed Vitamin A Immune system weakened during pregnancy increasing number and severity of infections Listeria infections often result in miscarriage premature delivery stillbirth or fetal infection bacteria commonly found in unpasteurized milk juices must wash fruits and vegetables avoiding certain seafood raw Caffeine in excess associated with increased risk of miscarriage or low birth weight Limit caffeine to 200 mg of caffeine day 1 2 cups of coffee or 2 3 20 ounce soft drinks Mercury in fish can cause developmental delays and brain damage Consume 8 12 ounces of seafood week from a variety of seafood types avoid fish high in mercury limit fish with lower amounts mercury Don t eliminate because source of lean protein omega 3 fatty acids and iodine Alcohol A leading cause of preventable birth defects teratogen that damages nervous system affects fetal growth and development because it reduces blood flow to the placenta can impair maternal nutritional status and causes fetal alcohol spectrum disorders FASD Physical or behavioral conditions and functional or mental impairments linked to prenatal alcohol exposure includes fetal alcohol syndrome Gestational hypertension is an abnormal rise in blood pressure after the 20th week Hypertension is 140 90 At risk Especially common under 18 and over 35 years of age in low income mothers and with chronic hypertension or kidney disease Preeclampsia mild form high blood pressure with edema and protein in urine reduces blood flow to the placenta Requires bed rest and careful medical monitoring usually resolves after delivery Eclampsia severe form causes life threatening seizures coma and death Gestational diabetes High blood glucose levels that develop in a pregnant woman At risk More common with obesity and family history of type 2 diabetes and in African Americans Hispanic Latino Americans Native Americans Mother has a 20 50 chance of developing diabetes in 5 10 years increased risk of diabetes Fetus is at risk for being large for gestational age and developing diabetes from increase FA production from inc insulin In the US about 1 million adolescent girls between the ages of 12 19 becomes pregnant each year Major public health problem Teen pregnancy Still growing HIGHER nutrient needs PLUS extra nutrients for pregnancy Higher risk pregnancy induced hypertension preterm and low weight babies Might stop growing after delivery of baby Need additional nutrients vitamins Mothers older than 35 Greater risk of given pregnancy associated problems If already a health disorder or obese even greater risk ex hypertensive moms even greater risk preterm low birth wt Higher risk Down s syndrome WIC program Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women Infants and Children WIC is a federally funded program that provides vouchers for the purchase of nutritious foods and referrals to health and other services for low income women who are pregnant postpartum or breast feeding and for infants and children up to age 5 who are at risk of malnutrition With WIC program can only buy nutrient dense foods in order to guarantee healthy growth of baby Breast milk is best for infant s unique nutrition needs Composition of breast milk changes as infant grows Fluid produced after birth Colostrum High in immune factors proteins water vitamins minerals CONTAINS Abs 6 days later breast milk produced High in lactose for Ca absorption More digestible form protein alpha lactalbumin Iron zinc low but readily absorbed by infant Colostrum is low in fat contains antibodies that help

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