UGA CBIO 2200 - Final Exam Study Guide (65 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide

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Final Exam Study Guide


Chapters 1-3, Atlas A, 5-9, 11-16

Study Guide
University of Georgia
Cbio 2200 - Anat & Physiol I
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CBIO 2200 1nd Edition Final Exam Study Guide Lectures 1 22 Covers Chapters 1 3 Atlas A 5 9 11 16 Chapter 1 Anatomy The Study of Form Anatomy the study of structure form Physiology the study of function Ways to examine the structure of the human body o Inspection simply looking at the body s appearance o Palpation feeling a structure with the hands o Auscultation listening to the natural sounds made by the body such as heart and lung sounds o Percussion examiner taps on body feels for abnormal resistance and listens to the emitted sound for signs of abnormalities such as pockets of fluid or air o Dissection carefully cutting and separating tissues to reveal their relationships o Cadaver dissection of a dead human body o Comparative anatomy the study of multiple species in order to examine similarities and differences and analyze evolutionary trends o Exploratory surgery opening the body and looking inside to see what was wrong and what could be done about it o Medical imaging replaced exploratory surgery in modern times methods of viewing the inside of the body without surgery e g x rays o Gross anatomy structure that can be seen by the naked eye not under microscope Radiology branch of medicine concerned with medical imaging Histology microscopic anatomy viewing cells under a microscope Histopathology microscopic examination of tissues for signs of disease Cytology study of the structure and function of individual cells Ultrastructure refers to fine detail down to the molecular level revealed by the electron microscope Physiology The Study of Function Sub disciplines of physiology o Neurophysiology physiology of the nervous system o Endocrinology physiology of hormones o Pathophysiology mechanisms of disease Comparative physiology the study of how different species have solved problems of life such as water balance respiration and reproduction o Basis for new drugs and medical procedures The Scientific Method A Uniform Approach to Experimentation Created by Rene Descartes and Francis Bacon o They argued against biased thinking and for more objectivity in science o Outlined a systematic way of seeking similarities differences and trends in nature and drawing useful generalizations from observable facts o Wanted to create a method that yields reliable objective testable information about nature o Scientific Method refers less to observational procedures than to certain habits of disciplined creativity careful observation logical thinking and honest analysis of one s observations and conclusions Particularly important in health sciences Sets a standard for truth The Inductive Method First prescribed by Bacon a process of making numerous observations until one feels confident in drawing generalizations and predictions from them What we know of anatomy is a product of inductive method The Hypothetico Deductive Method How most physiological knowledge was obtained Steps in the method o Investigator begins by asking a questions and forming a hypothesis which is an educated speculation or possible answer to the question o A good hypothesis must be Consistent with what is already known Capable of being tested and possible falsified by evidence o Flasifiability means that if we claim something is scientifically true we must be able to specify what evidence it would take to prove it wrong If nothing can prove it wrong it is not scientific o From the hypothesis a researcher makes a deduction o Experiment yields observations that either support or abandon hypothesis o If abandoned create a better hypothesis and test that one The Hierarchy of Complexity Humans hierarchy from macroscopic to microscopic o Organism organ systems organs tissues cells organelles molecules atoms Reductionism the theory that a large complex system such as the human body can be understood by studying its simpler components o Introduced by Aristotle Holism the complementary theory that there are emergent properties of the whole organism that cannot be predicted from the properties of its separate parts o Human beings are more than just the sum of their parts Anatomical Variation No two humans are exactly alike There is a most common structure the anatomy seen in about 70 or more of people Some people are anatomically varied o Extra or fewer vertebrae o Only one kidney o Two spleens o Etc Characteristics of Life Characteristics that distinguish living from non living people o Organization living things have a much higher level of organization than the nonliving o Cellular composition living matter is always made of one or more cells o Metabolism living things take in molecules from environment and chemically change them into molecules that form their own structures control their physiology or provide them with energy Metabolism the sum of all this internal chemical change Requires excretion o Responsiveness movement the ability of organs to sense and react to stimuli o Homeostasis the organism maintains relatively stable internal conditions o Development any change in form or function over lifetime of the organism Differentiation non specialized cells to specialized cells Growth o Reproduction all living organisms can produce copies of themselves o Evolution exhibit genetic change from generation to generation Physiological Variation Physiological variables differ with sex age weight diet degree of physical activity and environment These variations must be considered when treating patients Typical physiological values o Reference man 154 lbs 22 years light physical activity consumes 2800 calories per day o Reference woman 22 years 128 lbs light physical activity consumes 2000 calories per day Homeostasis Negative Feedback Homeostasis the body s ability to detect change activate mechanisms that oppose it and thereby maintain relatively stable internal conditions Claude Bernard observed that internal conditions of the body remain constant even when external conditions vary greatly internal temperature stays around 97 99 degrees Walter Cannon coined the term homeostasis Dynamic equilibrium there is a certain set point or average for a given variable such as body temp and conditions fluctuate slightly around this point Negative feedback the fundamental mechanism that keeps a variable close to its set point a process in which the body senses a change and activates mechanisms that negate or reverse it o Key mechanism for maintaining health o Often called feedback loops because feedback mechanisms alert the original changes

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