UT Arlington BIOL 3454 - Chordata continued (3 pages)

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Chordata continued

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Chordata continued


chordata continued

Lecture number:
Lecture Note
University of Texas at Arlington
Biol 3454 - General Zoology
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BIOL 3454 1nd Edition Lecture 29 Lecture 12 3 I Actinopterygii a Bony ray finned fishes b Monophyletic c 30 000 species d Named for their lepidotrichia or fin rays e Less than 1cm to 10m in size f 2 major groups i Chondrostei primitive paraphyletic or polyphyletic ii Neopterygii contains the modern fish or teleosts which are monophyletic II chondrostei a taxonomy very fluid contains about 50 species b sturgeon paddlefish bichirs and others c most lack typical scales d share many characteristics with sharks e skeleton made of cartilage f similar jaw structure g some minor bone development in a few h Bichris i Reedfish ii African iii 12 species iv Sister group to all other ray finned fishes i Paddlefish i Native to TX protected except for OK ii Filter feeders iii Use paddle for electroreception j Sturgeon i 25 species ii Holarctic distribution iii Up to 5m long iv Majority of species very endangered k Neopterygii Holostei i Contains the gar and bowfin ii Paraphyletic iii Share characteristics with chondrichthyans Chondrostei and teleosts iv Many in TX all new world l Gar i 7 species in 2 gnera ii Ganoid scales that interlock These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute iii Very predatory iv Alligator gar are a sportfish III Noepterygii Holostei a All other fish b 26 000 species c From the Triassic d Some have extensive parental care e Extremely diverse life history strategies f Some viviparous and have only one offspring at a time IV Sarcopterygii classical taxonomy a Lobe finned fishes b 8 species in 2 groups c Acrtinisita coelocanths 2 species d Dipnoi lung fish 6 species can breathe air and cocoon e Gondwanan distribution extinct species inhabited Pangea and Laurasia f Cladistics sense all tetrapods are sarcoptergyians humans included V Amphibians a Ectothermic tetrapods b 7000 species c Everywhere but strictly marine habitats d Require at least moist habitats for reproduction e Smallest vertebrate just a 1cm long frog giant salamanders almost 2m in length f First fossils in Devonian g Fish that crawed out of the water h Order Anura Frogs i Amphinians ii 6200 species iii Salutatory locomotion iv Up to almost 1m in length v Glandular porous skin vi Usually a biphasic life cycle although considerable variation in reproductive mode vii 35 of species endangered habitat destruction and infectious diseases i Oder Gymnophiona Caecilians i Smallest group of amphibians ii 200 species iii Up to 1 5m in length legless and often with annuli iv Poor vision v Strong skull for fossorial lifestyle vi Some have extensive parental care j Odrder Caudata Salamanders i Modern salamanders very similar to the first terrestrial tetrapod ii 600 species iii N America is the cnt of diversity for salamanders iv Large amounts of variation in life history traits larval vs direct development metamorphosis vs neoteny lungs or no lungs v Can estivate for yrs if needed VI Reptiles a Amniotes amniotic egg evolved reproduction not tied to water b Found in all habitats c Fossil history 350 mya in Carboniferous d Dry scaly skin may be modified into feather e Some extremely intelligent birds smart problem solvers f Largest terrestrial bulk feeding predators were reptiles g Anapsida Turtles i Uncertain phylogenetic position ii 400 species in most habitats iii Have shell carapace upper plastron lower iv Lay calcified hard shelled eggs v Many species very endangered food markets pet trade habitat destruction h Lepidosauromorpha i Plesiosaurs placodonts lizards snakes tuataras ii Primitive sprawling gate allows for the same sinusoidal movement seen in fish iii Pleurodont dentition iv All extothermic i Archosauromorpha i Ruling reptiles crocodilians dinosaurs including birds ii Extensive parental care iii Long fossil history from the late Permian VII Mammalia a 6 000 species b All habitats except the truly deep sea c Very diverse whales shrews platypus d Prototheria monotremes echidna and platypus e Theria marsupialia placentalia f Know from 100mya in the Jurassic g Many synapomorphies named for the production of milk by the mammary gland

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