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FSU MUH 2051 - India Study Guide

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India Study Guide (chapter 8)Timeline (116-117):- 1500 BCE- Key elements of Hinduism (worship of many deities, caste system, Vedas) date from this period.- 5th Century CE- Buddhism and Jainism originate in India- 13th Century- Islamic influence begins to exert a strong influence on Hindustani culture in north of India - 16th Century- Sikh religion (Sikhism) is founded- 1858- India officially becomes part of the British empire- 1947- India achieves national independence from Britain - 16th Century- Karnatak and Hindustani music recognized as fully distinct (but historically related) traditions- 1562-1607: Life of Tansen, legendary Hindustani musician- 19th Century- Life of Tyagaraja, Karnatak composer-1957- Ravi Shankar releases Sounds of India- 1961- John Coltrane records "India" (album: Impressions)- 1965- George Harrison plays a sitar on "Norwegian Wood" (album: Rubber Soul)- 1967- Ravi Shankar performs at the Monterey Pop Festival- 1976- John McClaughlin releases Shakti, with John McLaughlin, featuring "Joy" - 2008- A.R. Rahman wins two Oscars for Slumdog MillionaireNames in the blue box on page 120:1. Ravi Shankar: born into an upper class, Hindu family (Brahmin caste)a. Joined his brother’s music and dance group as a teen, touring in Europe.b. Studied music under the guru, Baba, becoming a young master in the art of raga.c. Member of the famous school, Maihar Gharana, founded by Baba.d. Collaborated with Western musicians to mix Indian and Western music.2. Yehudi Menuhin: English, classical violinist who befriended Shankar3. George Harrison: formally studied the sitar with Ravi Shankara. Incorporated raga-like features in many songs, such as “Within You, Without You, to create a favored, exotic sound.4. John Coltrane: jazz saxophonist who recorded India, an Indian-inspired style of jazz music with extended passages of improvisation over drone-based harmonies.a. Jazz and Indian classical music share emphases on virtuosity and improvised solos.5. John McLaughlin: British, jazz guitarist who began in the Miles Davis band and later formed the Mahavishnu Orchestra, a jazz-rock fusion band.a. Also took lessons with Ravi Shankar and converted to Hinduism6. Shakti: John McLaughlin’s band that took the Indian-jazz fusion to a new level: all the members were Indian classical musicians.7. L. Shankar: violinist in Shakti; nephew of Ravi Shankar8. Zakir Hussain: tabla player in Shakti; son of Alla Rakha (Shankar’s partner)9. A.R. Rahman: most renowned and influential Indian musician on an international scale since Ravi Shankar1a. One of the top-selling musical artists of all time.b. Known for keeping what is essentially “Indian music” in his music, while also pushing the core of Indian music to the outer reaches of global inclusiveness.c. Known for his work in Slumdog Millionaire10. Shreya Ghoshal: considered the queen of Bollywood playback vocalists.Study Items: 1. "Norwegian Wood": song on the Beatles’ 1965 album, Rubber Soul that featured George Harrison playing a sitar solo (adding “exotic color”).2. sitar explosion: the sudden increase in Indian music popularity among Western genres with the help of the famous Ravi Shankar.3. "Love You To": by George Harrison; on Beatles’ album, Revolver (1966)4. "Within You, Without You" G. Harrison, Sergeant Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band5. West Meets East: Ravi Shankar collaborates with Yehudi Menuhin; tops the classical music charts.6. barhat: the note-by-note expansion of the melodic range of a raga during performance.7. gharana (126): the “musical families” that have preserved, cultivated, and developed the different “schools” of traditional rage performance in India8. Himalayan Mountains: mountain range north of India.9. Punjab region: northern region of India near Pakistan10. languages / dialects: 200+ languages; 1,600 dialects; Hindi and English are the national languages.11. Hindu religion: worship of many deities, use of caste system for society.12. Vedas: 4 ancient, Hindu scriptures in Sanskrit.a. Believed to be divine rather than human origin.b. Presently expressed through melodic recitation.c. Shankar thought Indian classical music evolved from Vedic chant through centuries of musical transformation.13. bhajan: the existence of direct historical links between Indian classical music and a body of Hindu devotional songs. 14. Buddhism, Jainism: originated in India15. Islam: introduced from peoples in central Asia; extremely different from Hinduism16. Sikhism: religion that incorporates elements of both Hinduism and Islam.17. Sufism: a mystical form of Islam.a. Shares the belief with the Hindus that music serves as a pathway to communion with the divine.b. Helped facilitate musical, religious, and cultural syncretism18. Qawwali music: from Punjab region, became a major world phenomenona. The lead singer is joined by an ensemble of vocalists and instrumentalistsb. Appealing by its powerful and emotional singing, combined with the compelling rhythms of the drumming and unison handclapping.19. British Colonialism: became the dominant colonial empire and made India a part of its empire in 1858a. English arrived in search of spices and set up posts to establish exclusive commercial arrangements.220. Indian film song: most dominant popular music in modern India21. bhangra: major component of contemporary music heard in Bollywood filmsa. features lively Punjobi folk songs and dances accompanied by powerful rhythms played on a dhol.22. dhol: a large, barrel-shaped drum.23. Karnatak: traditional, classical music from southern India24. Hindustani: traditional, classical music from northern India.a. Better known of the two because of Ravi Shankar’s fame and immigration patternsb. Highly impacted by Islamic cultures from the north25. similarities between the two traditions: built off of raga and tala; both parallel vocals with instrumentals26. raga (132): highly complex and elaborate melodic rhythms27. vadi: the tonic or fundamental pitch of a raga.28. tala (132): systems of rhythm and meter29. sangita: translated as music, but often encompasses music-related arts such as dance and drama.30. Nada Brahma (135): the Sound of God; the divine source of all sound and music.31. three musical layers: a single-line melody; a drone; rhythmic accompaniment. 32. Karnatak instruments-a. Vina: a plucked chordophone; the solo melodic instrument.b. Tambura: plucked chordophone; the principal drone-providing instrument.c.

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