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FSU MUH 2051 - Irish Study Guide

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Irish Study Guide chapter 9 Timeline 158 59 4th century BC Earliest period of Celtic culture in Ireland 1840s Beginning of Irish potato famine mass starvation initiates the Irish diaspora 1920 Political division of Ireland 1921 1949 Decline in Irish traditional music despite efforts to preserve promote and nationalize it 30s 40s Irish traditional music thrives and develops in Irish diaspora communities U S and elsewhere 1949 Republic of Ireland becomes fully independent nation 1960s First decade of Irish music revival shift toward neo traditional musical styles including ensemble rather than solo performance 1970s Period of great political unrest and violence in Northern Ireland especially in Belfast 1980s Altan and other new groups established preserving traditional styles while continuing to push Irish traditional music in new directions as well 1990s Riverdance becomes an international sensation Online musical illustration 24 plays 3 versions of same song traditional solo fiddle neo traditional an ensemble post traditional styles ensemble with amplified instruments Musical guided tour common dance rhythms jig hornpipe reel each based on a certain scale Dorian Mixolydian and major o Ornaments roll cran treble cut triplet o medley two or more tunes that are strung together Identifiable styles of melodic ornamentation Celtic Musical Traits 169 1 Prevalence of melodies based on specific types of scales and modes 2 3 Use of certain types of instruments fiddles bagpipes flutes 4 Dance tunes based on common dance rhythms 5 Standard forms for songs and dance tunes 6 A close integration of music making with dancing Irish traditional music the core of all Irish music that has a basis in rural folk music Study Items 1 2 pan Irish the Irish identity and culture in Ireland itself and throughout the diaspora 3 4 Irish Gaelic the traditional Celtic language of Ireland Irish potato famine began in 1840s and led to the decimation of the Irish population the diaspora violent resistance to British control and beginnings of Irish nationalism Irish diaspora the dispersal of millions of people from Ireland to other nations esp the US and Canada 5 6 Radio ireann national radio station founded in 1926 7 Irish music revival major cultural phenomenon of the 60s that worked to preserve and transform Irish traditional music a Contributed by the increased prosperity of urbanization and fear of culture loss 8 session an informal gathering where musicians join together to play Irish tunes amidst a An ensemble performs older traditional tunes but not to typically accompany socializing dancing 9 5 categories of traditional music a Sean n s old way songs sung in Irish Gaelic b Slow instrumental melodies called airs often performed in free rhythm c Songs sung in English d Pieces performed on the Irish harp e Instrumental dance tunes and medleys 10 sean n s the heart of traditional music involves a style of singing that may feature either elaborate or subtle forms of melodic ornamentation distinctive phrasing and deeply felt emotional expression 11 Lillis O Laoire singing master of sean n s native speaker of Gaelic from County Donegal 12 tinwhistle a small end blown flute with 6 fingerholes usually made of metal also called the pennywhistle a Popular Irish flute type aerophone 13 Irish wooden flute larger and lower pitched than tinwhistle another popular aerophone 14 ceili an informal social gathering that is normally held at a neighborhood pub or dance hall and involves dancing a Less common than sessions because not as many people dance to Irish tunes 15 uillean pipes most distinctive Irish instrument a bagpipe with soft dynamic range and a delicate refined timbre played sitting down 16 Celtic ethnic culture of ancient history up to early Christianity stretches across Europe but mainly found in Ireland Wales Scotland and eastern Canada a Celtic characteristics melodies based on specific scales ornamentation use fiddles flutes etc dance tunes based off certain rhythms AABB form and close integration of music with dancing 17 Seamus Ennis one of the greatest uilleann pipers of the 20th century his father was also a uilleann pipes player who taught him how to play a Began playing as a child never took formal lessons b Worked to have Irish musicians from all counties featured on the radio so all of Ireland can hear different styles of music 18 1960s Irish music revival traditional musicians from all counties were recorded and distributed nationwide musical competitions were established a moved from the countryside to concert halls b guitar and other non traditional instruments were added c ensembles began to play and tour professionally 19 fleadhs all Ireland music competitions revived public interest to return to their roots by taking up traditional Irish instruments and learn old musical styles 20 Sean Riada important Irish musician that transformed traditional music into a fresh neo traditional Irish musical idiom a Features include innovative use of chords multiple melody textures changing combinations of instruments alternating solos on different instruments with an ensemble based sound 21 bodhr n a hand held frame drum with a goat skin head 22 The Chieftains premier international ambassadors of Irish traditional music 23 1970s Irish music revival a new generation of musicians who approached the Irish tradition from a different more cosmopolitan and commercial vantage point a many Irish musicians who grew up listening to other kinds of music rock jazz etc re embraced their cultural roots via Irish music their idea of traditional music was influenced by the neo traditional music of The Chieftains O Riada 24 Planxty product of 70s music revival 25 Altan flagbearer for Irish musical band scene cover traditional and Irish rock fusion 26 Irish ethnic identification Irish diaspora held on to traditional music to connect with homeland in post WWII 27 Eileen Ivers plays a range of musical styles from neo traditional Irish to Irish rock Irish latin and Irish African fusion borders are there to be broken Irish fiddler The Modern Ensemble Sound of Irish Traditional Dance Music 180 1 Groups ensembles rather than solo performers 2 Chordal accompaniment played on non traditional instruments such as the guitar 3 Rhythmic accompaniment played on percussion instruments like the drum set 4 Traditional Irish dance rhythms may be transformed through the influences of non Irish musics 5 Varied musical textures as a result of the


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