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FSU MUH 2051 - Irish Study Guide

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Irish Study Guide (chapter 9) Timeline (158-59)4th century BC- Earliest period of Celtic culture in Ireland1840s- Beginning of Irish potato famine; mass starvation initiates the Irish diaspora1920- Political division of Ireland 1921-1949- Decline in Irish traditional music despite efforts to preserve, promote, and nationalize it30s-40s- Irish traditional music thrives and develops in Irish diaspora communities (U.S. and elsewhere)1949- Republic of Ireland becomes fully independent nation1960s- First decade of Irish music revival; shift toward neo-traditional musical styles, including ensemble rather than solo performance1970s- Period of great political unrest and violence in Northern Ireland, especially in Belfast1980s- Altan and other new groups established, preserving traditional styles while continuing to push Irish traditional music in new directions as well1990s- Riverdance becomes an international sensation Online musical illustration #24 : plays 3 versions of same song traditional: solo fiddle neo-traditional: an ensemble post-traditional styles: ensemble with amplified instruments Musical guided tour: common dance rhythms: jig, hornpipe, reel (each based on a certain scale: Dorian, Mixolydian, and major)o Ornaments: roll, cran, treble, cut, tripleto medley: two or more tunes that are strung together.Celtic Musical Traits (169)1. Prevalence of melodies based on specific types of scales and modes2. Identifiable styles of melodic ornamentation 3. Use of certain types of instruments (fiddles, bagpipes, flutes)4. Dance tunes based on common dance rhythms5. Standard forms for songs and dance tunes6. A close integration of music making with dancingStudy Items1. Irish traditional music: the core of all Irish music that has a basis in rural, folk music.2. pan-Irish: the Irish identity and culture in Ireland itself and throughout the diaspora3. Irish Gaelic: the traditional Celtic language of Ireland4. Irish potato famine: began in 1840s and led to the decimation of the Irish population, the diaspora, violent resistance to British control, and beginnings of Irish nationalism.5. Irish diaspora: the dispersal of millions of people from Ireland to other nations (esp. the US and Canada).6. Radio Éireann: national radio station founded in 1926 7. Irish music revival: major cultural phenomenon of the 60s that worked to preserve andtransform Irish traditional music.a. Contributed by the increased prosperity of urbanization and fear of culture loss.8. session: an informal gathering where musicians join together to play Irish tunes amidst socializing.a. An ensemble performs older, traditional tunes, but not to typically accompany dancing9. 5 categories of traditional musica. Sean nós (old way) songs, sung in Irish Gaelicb. Slow instrumental melodies called airs, often performed in free rhythmc. Songs sung in Englishd. Pieces performed on the Irish harpe. Instrumental dance tunes and medleys10. sean nós: (the heart of traditional music) involves a style of singing that may feature either elaborate or subtle forms of melodic ornamentation, distinctive phrasing, and deeply felt emotional expression.11. Lillis O’Laoire: singing master of sean nós; native speaker of Gaelic from County Donegal; 12. tinwhistle: a small, end-blown flute with 6 fingerholes, usually made of metal; also called thepennywhistle.a. Popular Irish flute-type aerophone.13. Irish wooden flute: larger and lower-pitched than tinwhistle; another popular aerophone14. ceili: an informal social gathering that is normally held at a neighborhood pub or dance hall and involves dancing.a. Less common than sessions because not as many people dance to Irish tunes.15. uillean pipes: most distinctive Irish instrument; a bagpipe with soft dynamic range and a delicate, refined timbre; played sitting down16. Celtic: ethnic culture of ancient history up to early Christianity; stretches across Europe, but mainly found in Ireland, Wales, Scotland, and eastern Canada.a. Celtic characteristics: melodies based on specific scales, ornamentation, use fiddles, flutes, etc, dance tunes based off certain rhythms, AABB form, and close integration of music with dancing.17. Seamus Ennis: one of the greatest uilleann pipers of the 20th century; his father was also a uilleann pipes player who taught him how to play.a. Began playing as a child; never took formal lessonsb. Worked to have Irish musicians from all counties featured on the radio so all of Ireland can hear different styles of music.18. 1960s Irish music revival: traditional musicians from all counties were recorded and distributed nationwide; musical competitions were establisheda. moved from the countryside to concert hallsb. guitar and other non-traditional instruments were addedc. ensembles began to play and tour professionally.19. fleadhs: all-Ireland music competitions; revived public interest to return to their roots by taking up traditional Irish instruments and learn old musical styles.20. Sean Ó’Riada: important Irish musician that transformed traditional music into a fresh, neo-traditional Irish musical idiom.a. Features include: innovative use of chords, multiple-melody textures, changing combinations of instruments, alternating solos on different instruments with anensemble-based sound.21. bodhrán: a hand-held frame drum with a goat skin head.22. The Chieftains: premier international ambassadors of Irish traditional music.23. 1970s Irish music revival: a new generation of musicians who approached the Irish tradition from a different, more cosmopolitan and commercial vantage point.a. many Irish musicians who grew up listening to other kinds of music (rock, jazz, etc) re-embraced their cultural roots via Irish music; their idea of traditional musicwas influenced by the neo-traditional music of The Chieftains & O’Riada.24. Planxty: product of 70s music revival25. Altan: “flagbearer” for Irish musical band scene; cover traditional and Irish-rock fusion26. Irish ethnic identification: Irish diaspora held on to traditional music to connect with homeland in post-WWII27. Eileen Ivers: plays a range of musical styles: from neo-traditional Irish to Irish-rock, Irish latin and Irish-African fusion; borders are there to be broken. Irish fiddlerThe Modern Ensemble Sound of Irish Traditional Dance Music (180)1. Groups (ensembles) rather than solo performers2. Chordal accompaniment played on non-traditional instruments such as the guitar3. Rhythmic accompaniment

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