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FSU HUM 3321 - FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE

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HUM3321 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE10 quotations (matching), 5 short answer (3-5 sentences), Multiple choice, and possibly some other matchingConcepts: (Understand their meaning and usage)• ISA: An organization that propagates the ideologies of the hegemonic force through means of social and psychological effects.o In other words, you are taught to believe the hegemony’s ideas are best and they should be supported.o Presented in the form of distinct and specialized institutionso Ex: religious ISA, educational ISA, etc.o There is a plurality of ISAs part of the private domain Ex: Churches, parties, trade unions, families o Functions primarily by “ideology” and secondarily by repressiono If the ISAs “function” massively and predominantly by ideology, what unifies their diversity is precisely this functioning, insofar as the ideology by which they function is always in fact unified, despite its diversity and its contradictions, beneath the ruling ideology, which is the ideology of “the ruling class.”o Meant for institutions to teach, “know how” through ideology which ensures subjection to the ruling ideology or the master of its “practice.”o It is in the forms and under the forms of ideological subjection that provision is made for the reproduction of the skills of labor power. • RSA: An organization that enforces the ideologies of hegemony through the use of violence (or force). o In other words, the groups that make sure you follow the laws of the ruling powero Functions primarily by “violence”, or repression (including physical repression), and secondarily by “ideology”o Ex: the Government, the Administration, the Army, the Police, the Courts, the Prisons, etc.o Public domaino Ex: The Army and the Police also function by ideology both to ensure their own cohesion and reproduction, and in the “values” they propound externallyo Given the fact that the “ruling class” in principle holds State power (openly or more often by means of alliances between classes or class fractions), and therefore has at its disposal the Repressive state Apparatus, we can accept the fact that this same ruling class is active in the ISAs insofar as it is ultimately the ruling ideology which is realized in the ISAs, precisely in its contradictions. • Ideology: A body of doctrine, myth, belief, etc., that guides an individual, social movement, institution, class, or large group. o The concept of ideology is of central importance, for dominant ideologies serve to reproduce social relations of domination and subordination.o Utilized by institutions in order to govern the interactions of individuals• Hegemony: the ruling powero Coined by Antonio Gramsci o The media (or rather those who control it) puts ideas in our heads, causing us all to think the same things as each other and these are not things that we would necessarily believe otherwise and we don’t even recognize that it is happening because these thoughts/idea/constructs seem natural and besides, everyone else believes the same thing so it must be right! Right?!?• Meritocracy Myth: merit and effort let you succeedo Individuals can go as far as their merit takes themo 2 main arguments that Meritocracy is indeed a Myth Impact of merit on economic outcome is vastly overestimated Nonmerit factors that suppress, neutralize, or negate effects of merit.o The media perpetuates this myth in many films Ex: The Pursuit of Happiness, Rocky• Imagined Community: o A nation is an imagined political community both inherently limited and sovereign. Limited means we are Americans, not Latvians or Australians.o This imagined community will demand Ultimate sacrifice from citizens in times of stress We expect to administer our laws within our borders without interference from other nations• Stereotypes: must be generalized and nonspecifico Widely held in popular social circleso Often used as a tool to make yourself feel better and demoralize otherso Even in the face of contradictions the stereotype is still upheldo Rigid and inflexibleo Filmmakers are dependent on stereotypes to have bit characters• Arab Stereotypes: Films have portrayed all Arabs as Muslims and all Muslims as Arabso Arabs are shown as heartless, brutal, uncivilized, religious fanatics through common depictions of Arabs kidnapping or raping a fair maiden; expressing hatred against the Jews and Christians; and demonstrating a love for wealth and power. o “Hook-nosed” Arabo Seen as the cultural “other”o Public enemy #1o Shocking article • African American Stereotypes: o The Brute : the brute caricature portrays Black men as innately savage, animalistic, destructive, and criminal—deserving punishment, maybe death. This brute is a fiend, a sociopath, and an anti-social menace. Black brutes are depicted as hideous, terrifying predators who target helpless victims, especially White women.o Criminal Black Man : African-American men are expected to be criminal and dangerous, an evolution of the brute. The rise of drug-related violence and homicides in the inner cities in the 1970s and early 1980s caused people to become more worried about young black men as “ominous criminal predator”, rather than “petty thief”; people associate young black men with crime in American cultureo The Coon : this caricature is one of the most insulting of all anti-Black caricatures. The name itself, an abbreviation of raccoon, is dehumanizing. The coon was portrayed as a lazy, easily frightened, chronically idle, inarticulate, buffoon. The coon acted childish, but he was an adult; albeit a good-for-little adult. The coon, although he often worked as a servant, was not happy with his status. He was, simply, too lazy or too cynical to attempt to change his lowly position. Coons were increasingly identified with young, urban Blacks who disrespected Whites (“Boy”, “uppity”). “Sambo” refers to black men that were considered very happy, usually laughing, lazy, irresponsible or carefree.o The Tom : this caricature portrays Black men as faithful, happily submissive servants. The Tom caricature, as with the Mammy Caricature, was born in ante-bellum America in the defense of slavery. How could slavery be wrong, argued its proponents, if Black servants, males (Toms) and females (Mammies) were contented, loyal servants? The Tom is presented as a smiling, wide-eyed, dark skinned server: fieldworker, cook, butler, porter, or waiter. The Tom


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