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FSU SPC 3210 - Study Guide Exam #3

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Study Guide Exam #3Vocab/Dates/People/Theories- NAATS- National association of academic teachers of public speakingo Today: National Communications association o 1914o FSU English Department- Communication: ““A systematic process in which individuals interact with and through symbols to create and interpret meaning.”o Process, systemic, symbols and meaningo Wood- Impacts of communication: Professional, personal, relational and cultural - Major areas of study in communication: Intrapersonal, interpersonal, public communication, group/team, media and new technology, organizational- Symbols: “Represent, stand for, other things, but they are not the things for which they stand”- Determinism: Human behavior that is governed by forces beyond our control - Free will: Belief that humans have free will and that they make choices about how to act. (Ontological)- Ontology: Assumptions about human natureo Free Will- Epistemology: the branch of philosophy that deals with knowledge. o How do we know what we know?- Building Blocks for theory: Epistemologyo Knowledge- Quantitative methods: Descriptive statistics, surveys, experimentso Making sense of numbers- Qualitative Methods: textual analysis, ethnography, critical scholarshipo Making sense of their own communication experience - Difference between the two:o Qualitative: how people perceive and make sense of their communication experience Interpreting meanings and other unobservable dimensionso Quantitative: Interpreting he data to make sense of arguments about what the numbers reveal  Making arguments about what the numbers mean about communication behaviors and relationships- Symbolic Interactionism: theory devised by mead that states that symbols are the foundation for personal and social life. o Mind, self, society- Narrative Paradigm: We sense our experiences in life by transforming theminto stories and narrative forms. o Walter Fisher: “We are all natural storytellers”o Narration: Symbolic actions that have sequence and meaning for those who live, create, or interpret them- Narrative Rationality: How we assess the quality of a story Coherence and fidelity o Coherence: How much sense does the story make? Believable?o Fidelity: the extent to which the story relates with our own experiences and values We find stories believable when they relate to our own experiences- Pentad: a tool that provides a structure for analyzing human actionso Reveals: “effectiveness of the work, the motive of the speaker and the philosophy of operation”o Burke’s pentad ^- Principles of determinism: Help explain why things happen the way they doo Symbolic Inducement o Criticism: Act, actor, agency, scene and purpose- Dramaturgy: Concerned with performance in every day life o Goffman: believes that bodily actions are used performatively to make impressions on individuals and to sustain an image they’re trying to protect- Dramaturgical model: o Frames- models we rely on to make sense of experience (Defines situations)o Impression Management: Process of managing setting, words, dress etc- Ethnography: a method of interpreting actions that generates understanding in terms of those performing the actions - General System’s theory: States that forms are organized wholes that seek to sustain themselves. - Dialectical theory: asserts that in any relationship there are inherent tensions between contradictory impulses, or dialecticso Leslie Baxter- tested this theory- Dialectics: Contradictory or opposing tensions o 3 major dialectical tensions:  Integration/separation Stability/change Expression/privacyo Responses to dialectics: Selection, separation, naturalizing, reframing- Uncertainty theory: the main goal of interaction is to reduce the amount of uncertainty about the other person’s thoughtso Laws approacho More deterministic- Social Exchange Theory: Asserts that people try to maximize rewards and minimize costs in relationshipso Aim: People seek to maximize rewards and minimize costs in relationshipso 4 major criticisms:  Little Heuristic value Not testable Not supported by research Inappropriate for humanso Comparison Levels: A subjective standard for what we expect in a particular type of relationship Based on personal past and current relationship CL reflects the whole of our experiences in relationships, combined with our knowledge- Social Penetration Model: “to develop a personal relationship, people penetrate the outside layers, middle layers, interior layer and finally reach the inner core of the self-concept. o Irwin Altman and Dallas Taylor Onion peeling example “peeling back the layers”- Perception and second generation developmental theories: Relationships are defined and guided by individuals perceptionso Honeycutt- Relational Development and Dissolution Model: Woodo Steps to making sense of a relationship- Relational Trajectories: personal understandings of various tracks in relationships- Turning points: key relational events or feelings that you perceive as marketing changes in the direction or intensity of a relationship. - Technological Determinism: Technology, specially media, shapes how individuals think, feel, and act and how societies organize themselves and operateo McLuhano “Some single cause or phenomenon determines other aspects of life- The Four Epochs:o Tribal Epoch Face-to-face interactions- Defined by oral traditions (oral cultures-stories-passed down)o Literate Epoch Began with the invention of the alphabeto Print Epoch Began with the invention of the printing presso Electronic Epoch First form was the telegraph People would communicate over great distances This epoch created a global villageo Cultivation Theory: Theory about television George Gerner “TV cultivates a view of the world that is inaccurate but that webelieve” “Watching TV promotes distorted views on life- Mean World Syndrome: A belief that the world is a dangerous place full of people who cannot be trusted and are likely to harm us- Axiom: a statement that is presumed to be true on its face and therefore doesnot require proof or explanation. - Ranking theories: top 5?1) Symbolic Interactionism: theory devised by mead that states that symbols are the foundation for personal and social life. Theorist: o Kenneth Burke- Dramatism o Media Ecology- Marshall Mcluhano Narrative Paradigm- Walter Fishero Social Penetration Theory- Irwin Altman & Dalmas Tayloro Symbolic


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