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FSU SPC 3210 - Exam #2

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Exam #2Chapter 101) How are symbols parts of Burke’s definition of rhetoric?a. For rhetoric as such is not rooted in any past condition of human society. It is rooted in an essential function of language itself, a function that is wholly realistic, and is continually born anew; the use of language as a symbolic means of inducing cooperation in beings that by nature respond to symbols.b. He saw humans as symbol users.c. He claimed that symbols separate us from nature and that the moralizing that symbols allow can have a negative effect if we fail in the drive for perfection. i. ***He defined rhetoric as “symbolic inducement,” the attempt to move others in desired directions through manipulation of symbols. 1. This use of symbols is a tactic of persuasion in rhetoric ii. “Because human communication is symbolic- that is, because it represents or stands for something- it is also “dramatics.” iii. The ‘drama’ is the ways humans as symbols users manage society. 2) What is Burke’s definition of the human? What is the rhetorical significance of each clause?a. Burke’s definition of the human: What his work is about (5 parts)1. Man is the symbol creating and symbol misusing animal. a. Unique- Tongue allows you to form words (use, create, misuse)2. Inventor of and invented by the “Negative.”a. Negative: word  “no”  “not” (Thou shall not…”)b. Invented by: We live our lives based on what we should not do. 3. Goaded by the spirit of the hierarchy. a. Get rid of “guilt” with VICTIMAGE (scapegoat)b. Guilt: Self mortificationi. GUILT: 1. Victimage: Scapegoat2. Self-mortification: naming4. “We are separated from nature by instruments of our own making.a. We lose a lot when we follow our noses with technologyi. Ex: Cell phones, headphones etc5. Rotten with perfection a. Many people are perfectionists3) What are the Marxian influences on Burke?a. BURKE WAS FACINATED WITH MARX’S ANALYSIS OF HISTORY. b. Marx’s critique of society and the hidden forces that lie behind it inspired Burke to uncover buried dialects in the discourse he examined. i. Burke fused Freud’s psychological insights with the dialectical approach of Marx. c. Marx’s wanted to show how “false consciousness” influenced the conscious life of the individual. i. People who were instructed by Burke found him such more tolerable than Marx because dramatism is open to more possibilities than pure, rational truth. 4) What are the Freudian influences on Burke?a. BURKE WAS FACINATED WITH FREUD’S INSIGHTS INTO THE HUMAN PSYCHE. b. The term “identification” was first termed by Freud. i. Burke took the theory of identification to help explain why some speakers, playwrights, and artists are so effective. c. Burke fused Freud’s psychological insights as he tried to extract the best from this synthesis. He established a dramatistic frame. i. Dramatistic: That which is propelled by intentional action as opposed to scientism, which is concerned with nonintentional motion. ii. Dramatism - an interpretive communication studies theory, was developed by Kenneth Burke as a meta-method for analyzing human relationshipsd. Also, Freuds works found that ego is synonymous with the “self.”i. Ego = self e. Burke claimed that individuals externalize their ego ideals by identifying with the egos of others. ******** Kenneth Burke merged two brilliant theories of human nature to create a potent rhetorical arsenal of theory building and textual criticism. ******** Burke showed us that rhetoric could do more good than harm if we only realize its artistic potential. 5) What is false consciousness, and how does one attain true consciousness?a. False consciousness - full of illusions that should be destroyed.i. These illusions are created when words are not properly grounded in the social and productive condition. b. ATTAINING TRUE CONSCIOUSNESS: Comparing them to the material realities of the world.i. Marx believed that history is “determined” by changes in the relationship of production and consumption, and consumption is often a product of rhetorical pressures imposed by hidden ideologies. 6) What does consubstantiality mean, and how might it be used rhetorically? What “substances” might a skilled rhetorician draw upon?a. CONSUBSTANTIAL: with the same substance i. Vocab?b. Consubstantial comes from “identification” and “unity.” i. It is categorized as Anaclitic and Narcissistic1. Anaclitic: Care taking (rhetoric of welfare-brother’s keeper)2. Narcissistic: Perfected self (rhetoric of leadership-nostalgia, hero)ii. Consubstantial strategies, that is, those that show the speaker and audience are of the same substance, also enhance identification. 1. Uses for rhetoric ^iii. The MOST POWERFUL dialectic exists between the anaclitic strategies and narcissistic found in Freud. 7) What does “symbolic killing” mean and how is it enacted? a. Symbolic killing refers to the soldiers naming their weapons a female name to make the killings used seem detached from the actual killing. The use of this naming is to make the killing seem as though is the named weapon is killing, not the actual solider.i. Burke says that the names stood for symbols. He claimed that it provided a socially acceptable reason for killing. 8) What is meant by “language as symbolic action?” “Naming and framing?”a. Symbolic action : A term used by 20th-century rhetorician Kenneth Burke to refer, in general, to systems of communication that rely on symbols.b. Burke claims that names are implicit acts and that language is a symbolic action because names put a frame on things. i. “We don’t torture, we use enhanced interrogation.” c. “Language as a symbolic action”- The division of identification and division.i. “Identification” is the use of new rhetoric as well as consubstantial. d. Naming: Names provide socially acceptable reasons for killing. i. Names distance the person from acts of violence.ii. Names mediate the act of killinge. Framing: “Frames of acceptance”- For literary worksi. The epic- heroic talesii. The tragic- fate defeats the individual iii. The comic- story where chance intervenes. 9) How does Burke’s concept of identification work? In other words, specify modes of identification that are implicit (unconscious) and explicit (conscious.) a. Burke states that identification is used from old rhetoric  new rhetoric. i. Old Rhetoric :


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