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FSU PCB 3743 - Chapter 16

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Chapter 16**________ states that the amount of pressure exerted by a gas in a mixture is proportional to the percentage of the gas in the mixture. -------> Dalton's law**A chest wound can introduce air into the intrapleural space, a condition known as _______________. -------> pneumothorax**A deficiency of lung surfactant may result in ______________ -------> respiratory distress syndrome**A dry mixture of gases has a total pressure of 600 mmHg and the oxygen comprises 20% of the gas mixture. The partial pressure of oxygen (P02) is therefore equal to _________ -------> 120 mmHg**A restrictive lung disorder is indicated by a below normal _________ -------> vital capacity**According to _________, if it were not for pulmonary surfactants, we should expect the surface tension in a small alveolus to produce greater pressure than in a large one and air would flow from the smaller alveolus to into the larger one -------> LaPlace's law**According to Henry's law, the amount of gas that will dissolve in blood plasma or any other liquid is determined by which of these factors? -------> solubility of the gas in the liquid**Alveoli are microscopic air sacs branching off the ______________. -------> respiratory bronchioles**Any lung disease that reduces the forced expiratory volume (FEV), but does not significantly affect the vital capacity is categorized purely as a(n) ____ -------> obstructive lung disorder**Carbon dioxide is carried in the blood in all of the following ways except as ___________. -------> carboxyhemoglobin**During normal, relaxed respiration, about 500 ml of air enters and leaves the lungs with each respiratory cycle. This is called the _______________ -------> tidal volume**External respiration refers to ________________ -------> ventilation and gas exchange between the air and blood**Forceful expiration requires the actions of the ________________. -------> internal intercostals and abdominal muscles**Hemoglobin S differs from hemoglobin A in that ________________. -------> glutamic acid is replaced by valine in the beta chain**Hemoglobin that has undergone oxidation of the iron is known as _____________ -------> methemoglobin**Hypoventilation tends to cause _________________. -------> hypercapnia**If a person's PCO2 remains chronically high, as in emphysema, the peripheral chemoreceptors become insensitive to hypercapnia and pulmonary ventilation becomes stimulated by _________ rather than by increases in blood PCO2. -------> hypoxic drive**Lung surfactant is produced by ______________. -------> type II alveolar cells**Obstruction of circulation through the lungs can put a strain on the right ventricle, which must work to pump blood against this increased resistance and can lead to failure of that chamber. This syndrome is known as ______________ -------> cor pulmonale**One atmosphere is defined as __________________ -------> 760 torr**The __________ makes it virtually impossible to voluntarily over-inflate the lungs -------> Hering-Breuer reflex**The amount of air that is inhaled or exhaled in one breath during unforced breathing is the _______________. -------> tidal volume**The bends are symptomatic of _________________. -------> decompression sickness**The Bohr effect describes the effect of _____________. -------> decreased pH decreasing the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen, enhancing unloading**The central chemoreceptors will increase their firing rate in direct response to increases in the level of ____________ in the CSF, resulting in _____________ ventilation. -------> carbon dioxide; increased**The conducting zone of the respiratory system does not ______________. -------> exchange gases with the blood**The conducting zone of the respiratory system includes all of the following passages except ______________. -------> alveolar ducts**The pressure difference across the lung wall is the ________________. -------> transpulmonary pressure**The pressure of dry atmospheric gas is primarily determined by all of the following gases except ____________, which makes a comparatively negligible contribution -------> hydrogen**The rhythmicity center, a sort of pacemaker that sets the rhythm of automatic breathing, is located in the __________________ -------> medulla oblongata**The space __________ is referred to as a "potential space." -------> between the parietal and visceral pleurae**Two alpha chains and two gamma chains make up the protein (globin) part of _______. -------> hemoglobin F**When there is less oxyhemoglobin in the blood, red blood cells produce 2,3-DPG. This metabolic product ________________ -------> enhances oxygen unloading at the systemic capillaries**Which of the following changes does not occur when a fetus is delivered and begins to breathe on its own for the first time? -------> the rate of blood flow through pulmonary circulation decreases**Which of the following is classified as a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is commonly known as a black lung disease? -------> anthracosis2,3-DPG comes from -------> anaerobic respiration in red blood cells._________ is characterized by high red blood cell counts. -------> PolycythemiaA decrease in temperature will shift the oxygen dissociation curve to the -------> left.A family of hemoglobin diseases found primarily in people of Mediterranean ancestry is -------> thalassemia.A measure of the distensibility of the lungs is -------> compliance.A pH above 7.45 is considered -------> alkalosis.Acclimatization to altitude -------> stimulates increased blood cell synthesisAcclimatization to high altitude results in __________ 2,3-DPG in erythrocytes. -------> increasedAccording to the Bohr effect, as pH is lowered, the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen -------> decreases.According to who's law, is the pressure in a small alveolus greater than a large alveolus as long as thesurface tension is equal? -------> Laplace's lawAn atopic allergic asthmatic would have -------> A. activation of helper T lynphocytes.B. production of IgE.C. pulmonary eosinphilia.D. All of the choices are correct.An increase in 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid (2,3-DPG) will


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