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FSU PCB 3743 - Chapter 12

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Ch. 12 Lecture 1I. Functions and Components of the Circulatory Systema. Two systems:i. Systemic ii. Pulmonary b. Transportationi. We transport O2/CO2. ii. Nutrient Transportiii. Waste products from metabolism c. Regulationi. Hormones ii. Temperature1. Regulation of blood flow to the skin (dilation/constriction)d. Protectioni. Blood Clotting (protection)ii. Immune system functions (We won’t get into detail in this)II. Componentsa. Cardiovascular Systemi. Blood Vessels 1. Away: Arteries, oxygenated2. Towards Heart: Veins3. Arteries->arterioles->capillaries ->venules ->veinsii. Heart: 4 chambered pump b. Lymphatic Systemi. Fluid for interstitial spaceii. Helps protect from foreign invadersiii. Lymphatic vessels, lymphoid tissues, lymphatic organsIII. Composition of the Blooda. Plasma: Fluid Parti. Full of proteins1. Primary is Albumina. Creats osmotic/oncotic pressure b. Helps keep most water from going into interstitial spacec. Maintains Blood Volume2. Globulinsa. Carry lipids and fat soluble vitaminsb. Gamma Globulins: ANTIBODIES3. Fibrinogena. Helps in clotting after it transforms to fibrinb. “Buffy Coat”c. Formed Elementsi. Mostly red blood Cells1. Erythrocytesa. Primary function is transport of O2 and CO2(30%)b. No Nuclei or mitochondria, only cells in body that don’t use Oxygenc. Only live 120 daysd. Contain hemoglobin which binds the oxygen/ some CO2 and also acts as a pH buffer by binding Hydrogen ionse. Transferrin: Recycles iron from dead erythrocytes 2. Leukocytesa. Do have Nuclei and mitochondria b. Granular: Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophilsc. Aggranular: Monocytes and lymphocytes 3. Plateletsa. Smallestb. No Nucleic. Short Life span (5-9 days)d. Clot blood using fibrinogen 4. Don’t worry about that big chart, just basic functions of each type of cell d. Cell Formationi. Hematopoiesis1. Leukopoiesis: White blood cell formationa. Red bone marrow and lymphoid tissuesb. Regulated by cytokines2. Erythropoiesis: RBCsa. Erythropoieteni. Regulated by Kidneysii. When O2 levels are low, erythropoietin production is increasediii. Major component of athletic blood doping (AKA Epo)b. Hepcidini. Secreted by the liver, regulation of iron metabolismc. Don’t need to know the diagram  e. Blood Typingi. Antigens are on the surface of RBC1. Helps immune system recognize self cellsii. Antibodies secreted by lymphocytes in response to foreign cells1. People in more populated areas have a more “primed” immune systemiii. ABO System uses anthigens on the erythrocyte cell surfaces1. Type A: has A antigen2. Type AB: Has A and B Antigen3. Type O: Has no antigen 4. When you have a transfusion reaction, you make antibodies against foreign antigensa. If a person receives the wrong blood type, antibodies bind to erythrocytes and cause agglutinationb. Also important in tissue typing for transplants5. Rh Factora. AKA Antigen Db. People who are Rh (+) Have the antigen, people without it are(-) c. Important in pregnancyi. If you have a - mom and a + baby can cause erythroblastosis fetalis as the mother’s immune system attacks the babie’s RBC, not always death but often results in a very anemic baby  1. Often happens for the second baby once the immune response has been built upii. Solution? OB can give Rho gam which is an antibody against the Rh factor. Binds the antibody before it can attack the baby blood. f. Blood Clottingi. Hemostasis1. This is super complicated, so the details aren’t important2. Stopping (cessation) of bleeding when the blood vessel is damaged3. Damage of the vessel causes the collagen fibers to be exposed to blood Produces:a. Vasoconstrictionb. Formation of Platlet Plugi. Platelets bind to the collagenii. Held in place by the Von Willebrand Factoriii. Platelets recruit more platelets and form plug by secreting:1. ADP(stickiness) , Serotonin(Vasoconstriction), Thromboxane A(Sticky and Vasoconstriction)c. Formation of Fibrin Protein Webi. Fibrinogen -> fibrin1. Intrinsic/Extrinsic Pathway2. Intrinsic: Activated by collagen exposure, factor XII activates other clotting factors (don’t memorize)a. *** Next, calcium and phospholibpids convert prothrombin to thrombin which converts fibrinogen to fibrin (know what thrombin is for sure)3. Extrinsica. Initiated by a tissue factor and is a more direct pathwayb. Probably the major pathway4. Vitamin K is needed for both factors5. Don’t memorize that crazy diagram. Things to knowa. Intrinsic pathway: Exposure to collagen. You don’t need a blood vessel for this to happen. Mostly negative charge and that’s why it’sintrinsic. Calcium and Phospholipids are very importantb. Extrinsic Pathway: Active tissue factor causes a bunch of activation and Calcium and Phospholipids used again.c. Common Pathway also uses Calcium and Phospholipids.d. End of common is Prothrombin -> Thrombin and Fibrinogen->Fibrin, which finally makes the fibrin polymer responsible for clotting.e. Don’t worry about the chart either 4. In healthy blood vessels you want to avoid clotting by:a. Secreting prostacyclin and Nitric Oxide to promotei. Vasodilation ii. Inhibition of platelet aggregationb. Secretion of CD39 which:i. Helps with stickiness of plateletsii. Converts ADP to AMP because ADP triggers platelet stickiness5. Anticoagulantsa. Clotting can be prevented with certain drugsi. Calcium Chelators (binds and inhibits calcium)ii. Heparin (blocks thrombin)iii. Coumarin (inhibits Vitamin K)iv. Asprin (Stops prostaglandin production) b. You can develop clotting disorders


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