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FSU CLP 3305 - Unit 3 Learning Objectives

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Unit 3 Learning ObjectivesChapter 11: Psychological Interventions1. Psychotherapya. Rewards: i. Reducing unwanted thoughts, feelings, behaviorsii. Increasing wanted ( thoughts, feelings, behaviors)b. Risks/Costs:i. Deterioration ( ex. trauma therapy for homosexuality- getting wrong treatment messes with your mind/makes you worse)ii. Injury/death (ex. rebirthing therapy- wrap kids up tight can cause serious injury or death)iii. Moneyiv. Timev. Opportunity cost - Giving up the chance to do something else/ a different therapy and not getting better when you could be doing a therapy that does get you better2. Efficacy vs. Effectivenessa. Efficacy : an intervention associated with significant positive changes/benefits in controlled clinical settingsi. High internal validityii. High I.V is because the patient gets better purely because of the therapy. There are no external factors affecting the patient and they only have the 1 disorder the therapy is treating.iii. Done in hospitalsb. Effectiveness : associated with significant positive changes/benefits in real world settingsi. High external validityii. High E.V because there might be external factors affecting patient and they might have more than 1 disorder but they still improve significantly than when they first came in for treatmentiii. Outpatient3. “Generalizable”a. When findings are “generalizable” it means they can be applied in a wide range of situations. Seen in effectiveness studies because they can be applied in real world settingsb. This is important because it is almost impossible for a patient to be in a setting where everything is controlled. Most patients get therapy in real world settings4. 4 main finding of Consumer Reports Study (effectiveness study)a. Readers of Consumers Reports took a poll that asked general questions about therapyb. Findingsi. Psychotherapy leads to improvements most of the timeii. All mental health professionals (clinical psychologist, clinical social worker, etc.) received equally high marksiii. Therapy alone worked just as well as psychotherapy and medicationiv. More treatment sessions led to more improvementc. Limitations:i. If all mental health professionals worked equally then people will not pay more money for a clinician when they can pay less for a clinical social worker.ii. If just psychotherapy works just the same as with medicine then people will not pay for a psychiatrist who is more expensive5. Common Factors in therapya. Relationship/Therapeutic alliance : Clients should feel comfortable enough to discuss concerns and therapist should be accepting, objective, insightful, and professionali. Can be difficult for therapist, especially if what the client is saying goes against the therapist’s personal beliefsii. Ex. Man who has raped women- difficult subject matter to remain objective aboutb. Expert Role : Client puts their trust in their therapist that they will help them get better because the therapist has specific skills (assessment, diagnostics, treatment), specific knowledge (about normal and abnormal psychological conditions), and specific responsibilities ( ethics and professional guidelines)i. High levels of directness leads to bad outcomesii. Important to have high humility (rapport and empathy)iii. Therapist should offer a few choices instead of telling client what they should do but not too many choicesc. Building Competence/Mastery : Important for client to believe that they can reach their goals (self efficacy). i. Improvement leads to increases in self efficacy and increases in self efficacy leads to improvement.d. Non-specific factors : These are vague factors that promote positive outcomes: hope, faith, encouragement, expectancyi. Every client has different n.s factors. Some are required to have therapy so they are cynical and don’t think it will work (they have low faith, hope, etc.)6. Specific Therapeutic Variablesa. Client i. Age: not related to outcome, any age just as likely to reap benefitsii. Gender: not related to outcome, but gender of therapist does matter. 1. Ex. Female rape victim would feel more comfortable with a female therapistiii. Ethnicity/race: not related to outcomeiv. Intelligence: related to outcome, use of different therapies for different levels of intelligence. High IQ (cognitive therapy) Low IQ (behavioral therapy)v. Relationship between degree of distress and outcome has mixed findingsb. Therapist i. Age, sex, ethnicity: not related to outcomeii. Empathy/warmth/genuineness: related to outcome, its necessary but empathy alone is not enough for client to get betteriii. Emotional well being: mixed results, not necessary but if the therapist has experience being in therapy themselves, they can better understand what its like to be a client.7. Stages of Changea. It’s important to know the client’s stage of change regardless of what therapy is being used. Clients are not always in the same place for therapy.b. A client’s behavior change is a process that involves a progression through a set of stagesc. Not all clients are ready to commit to therapy or ready to make changes, so it’s the therapist’s job to move client from pre-contemplation to contemplationd. Clinicians should only use interventions that match the stage their client is ini. Ex. If client is not ready to change (pre-contemplation) and the client is an alcoholic, can’t ask them to give up all alcohol because their not ready to change their behaviors yet8. Empirically Supported Treatmentsa. Treatments for various psychological conditions that have been shown through careful empirical study to be well established or probably efficacious (meaning these are treatments that have research behind them and therefore work)b. Some therapies are better for specific disorders than others (ex. Exposure therapy great for specific phobias but not for BPD)c. Online access to the latest empirically supported treatments increases therapists’ knowledge for those who don’t have time to read through research papers d. Treatment manuals are used for standard application9. Effect Sizesa. The size of a treatment effect ( how effective is a treatment, did it work a lot or a little)b. This is important when comparing treatments to see which has the biggest effect size and therefore works the most/best (most effective)c. This goes against the Dodo Bird Hypothesis because the DBH says all treatments are equally effective and work the same way. But effect sizes show


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