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FSU CLP 3305 - Clinical Study Guide

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Clinical Study Guide Exam 2Chapter 61. What is reliability? What is validity?a. Validity- is the test measuring what you are trying to measure?b. Reliability- the extent to which an assessment technique yields consistent, repeatable results2. What are the different types of reliability and validity?a. Reliabilityi. Interrater: consistency of results across different administrationsii. Test-Retest: consistency of results across multiple administrations at different timesb. Validityi. Content: extent to which the assessment has content appropriate for what is being measuredii. Discriminant: assessment does NOT correlate with assessments that measure something else (only measuring what we are trying to measure)iii. Criterion Related: 1. Predictive: does this predict something in the future that is related2. Concurrent: correlated with independent measures of the same thing at same time3. How are reliability and validity related?a. If something is valid, it is usually reliableb. If something is reliable, it does not mean that it is valid4. What is a referral, and how does it impact assessment?a. The reason the client is seeking treatment/testingb. Gives you a place to start because you know the reason as to why someone is seeking treatment5. What is an interview? What are the essentials and techniques that should be kept in mind when conducting an interview?a. An interaction with a goal in mindb. Physical arrangements- comfortable, not too many personal items, neutralc. Note taking and recording- make sure you have consentd. Rapport- establish a comfortable relationship for the client6. What is rapport and why is it important?a. Small talk first to put client at ease with first assessment, speak in clients terms, acknowledge weirdness of situation, make them feel comfortable7. In what ways do interviews differ?a. In the purpose such as intake/admission, case-history, mental status exam, crisis interview, diagnostic interviews and in structure- they can be unstructured, structured, or semi-structured8. Know about the 5 types of interviewsa. Intake/Admission: determine why the client is seeking services, judge whether the agency can meet the client’s needs, inform the client about what to expectb. Case-History: gather complete personal and social history, provides a context of family, medical/prior treatment, education, employment, etc.c. Mental Status Exam: general presentation, orientation (do they know where they are, date, time, year, etc.), attention and calculation, recall, language, complex commandsd. Crisis Interview: meet problems as they occur and provide an immediate resource, deflect potential for a disaster, encourage person to enter a relationship with cliniciane. Diagnostic: arrive at a DSM-IV diagnosis9. What are differences between structured and unstructured interviews?a. Structured are a set of questions which are asked in the same order every time, there is no room for improvisation; unstructured allow the clinician to ask any item they want, gives them more freedomChapter 71. How has intelligence been defined?a. No universal definition, but definitions usually emphasize adjustment or adaptation (street smarts), the ability to learn (book smarts), and abstract thinking (manipulating symbols/concepts)2. How did Spearman and Thurstone differ in their conceptualizations of intelligence? How are their ideas reflected in current conceptualizations of intelligence? How are they reflected in current IQ tests?a. Spearman believed in a g factor of general intelligence and s factors of specific intelligence; intelligence is one thing, general level of intelligence that dictates specific areas (how you would perform different tasks)b. Thurstone believed in no single g factor, intelligence is many things, g is related to s which is related to your abilities to succeed on certain tasksc. The FSIQ reflects Spearman’s idea of full scale IQ, you receive a general scored. Reflected in current conceptualizations because many people believe that they are intelligent in certain areas more than otherse. The subscale scores reflect Thurstone’s idea of specific abilities, the idea that you can be more intelligent in certain areas3. What are the differences between Ratio IQ and Deviation IQ?a. Ratio IQ divides mental age by chronological age in order to give you your IQ score- not good because your CA changes and seems like your IQ is decreasing when in reality, it is stableb. Deviation IQ involves a comparison of an individual’s performance on an IQ test with that of his or her age peers4. What are the correlates of IQ? Do gender differences in IQ exist?a. The correlates of IQ are school success, occupational status, and job performanceb. Gender differences include that males are better with spatial and quantitative tasks, whereas women are better at verbal tasks, but no differences in overall IQ5. What is the evidence that IQ is heritable? Is IQ fixed?a. Evidence from behavioral genetics studies, twin studies show that IQ scores are more similar between MZ twins than DZ twins and other siblingsb. IQ is not fixed, can change over time and environment becomes less important as people grow older6. What is the Flynn Effect?a. IQ scores increase approximately 3 points each decade which could reveal that we are getting smarter, or just more used to items on IQ tests7. What are the common IQ assessments? What do they have in common? How are they different?a. Stanford-Binet: one test, same test for all age groups, subtests b. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS): 3 different scales, subsets of FSIQ, c. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC): similar structure, FSIQ and different subtest scoresd. Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI): fewer scales, not as extensivee. They all have an FSIQ to measure intelligence as a whole, along with subtest IQ’s so they can measure certain areas, they all have different scales, and they are all for different age groups8. Why are intelligence tests used?a. To estimate general intellectual level and a prediction of academic successChapter 81. What is personality?a. Distinct, enduring pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors most of the time, in most situations. 2. What are the common characteristics of projective tests?a. Stimulus is unstructured, examinees forced to impose their own structure, indirect, freedom of response, and interpretation of many variables3. Describe the Rorschach and how it is administered


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