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Chapter 18: KnitsKnow knitting terminologyStitch – each loop in a knit fabricCourse – Rows of loops across width of fabric-Show on the backWale – columns of loops across length of fabric-Show on the frontgauge – Number of stitches per inch across the width of the fabric (usually fraction expressed) -i.e. if there are 10 stitches across the width, the gauge is 10 or 1/10.  higher the gauge the closer the stitchesStitch density – number of stitches (loops) per square inch going down-(multiply COURSES X WALES)Know the difference between weft knitting and warp knitting. Be able to recognize diagrams of both.-Weft or filling knits are those in which the yarns interlace crosswise, warp knits are those in which the yarns interlace in a vertical directionWARP WEFTKnow two basic weft knitting stitched (knit and purl) and how they can be combined-Weft knit are yarn formation and stitches in a weft knit fabric, Purl are filling knit loops that go behind the loop above it. Combined by rib stitching; made by alternating knit and purl stitchingKnit PurlGarment made by interlocking rows of loops called stitchesFilling knit loops fo behind the loop above itActive stitches held on needle until another loop is passed throughHigh crosswise & lengthwise stretchSmall quantities of fabrics made in purl knitKnow knitted fabrics structures:Jersey – (plain knit) All loops look the same and in same manner. Knit most easily distorted/stretched and edges curl. More stretched in crosswise than lengthwise direction.Wales  show on faceCourses  show on backPurl – Filling loops go behind and above it (filling)High crosswise and lengthwise stretchRib – Formed by Wales that alternate front & back (1x1, 2x2)-greater elasticity on width than length-Stable – don’t stretch/curlJacquard - A fabric with an intricately woven pattern.-The design is incorporated into the weave instead of being printed or dyed onMissed Stitch – FLOAT – In order to create a design effect/decor, a stitch may be missed in a regular pattern.Know how fake fur and pile knits are made-Sliver knit pile – a continuous strand loosely assembled fibers that is fairly uniform and w/o twist. -Process locks individual fibers directly into a lightweight knit backing allowing each fiber to stand upright, free from the backing to form the soft pile on the face of the fabric.-mostly olefinKnow the two types of warp knit—tricot and raschel—and what types of fabric they makeTricot – Made with two sets of threads, fine vertical wales on the face, crosswise ribs appear in a horizontal position on the backside. Seldom used in garments, however used as BACKING for some bonded fabrics.• Almost no stretch in lengthwise direction• has a unique weave that allows it to be smooth on one side (back) while sporting texture on the other (face). • Technical back often used as right side -> smoother for printing• USES – women undergarments, leggings, dolls homecrafting.o Looks like chevron cause of zigzag pattern on yarnsRaschel – Columns of loops are connected by in-laid yarns traversing from column to column, up the fabric. Open structures.• Pillar & inlay effect  common feature• Elaborated patterned surface• USES – From lace to carpeto embroidery, power nets, swimwear, thermal cloth for cold weather underwear and lace.Know how the fibers for nonwovens are put in position:Staple fibers are produced by either of these:Dry forming: carding, dry laying or air laying. • Manner similar to sliver for yarn spinning, except the thin film of fibers removed from the card is not drawn together into a sliver, but is laid onto a conveyor.o Direction in which fibers are laid down is machine direction. o Thicker webs built up by layering carded websWet forming• Manner similar to paper making in that mix of fibers in water is collected on a screen, drained and dried.o Most common  Wood pulp w/ short cellulosic fiberso Staple-fibers  most expensive, harder to disperse.Know examples of the means for bonding (consolidating) the fibersMechanical• Needlepunching: web is fed into machine with bed of barbed needles, which move in & out of web, entangling fibers• Spunlacing: high speed jets of water hitting fibrous web bind fibers together by causing them to knot or curl around each other• Stitchbonding: fiber webs are stitched through to hold the fibers together manuallyThermal: sensitive fibers are heated, causes to slightly soften and then bonded to something else. Allows for greater flex, bonding durability and softness.Spunbonding: 1. Filaments are blown onto a moving belt where they from a web. 2. As they are still hot & partially molten, they bond.a. Strong, not easily tornb. Uses: carpet backing, apparel interlinings, geotextiles.Chemical: applying adhesive material to the web & then setting the adhesive, which glues fibers together.Solvent: solvent is applied to soften the fiber surface in a web causing bondingKnow some durable and non-durable uses for nonwovensDURABLE: multi-use DISPOSABLE: thrown away after one useGeotextiles DiapersInsulated clothing Tea bagsImitation fur Examination gownsUpholstery backing WipesWall covering backing Dental bibsKnow that felt was the earliest non-woven made (mechanically bonded)• Traditionally wool• True felting – entanglement of a mass of fiberso Combination of Heat, Moisture & pressure.• Chemical bonded tooChapter 20: Other Fabric Construction MethodsKnow the basic compound or multicomponent fabrics and how they are made:MULTICOMPONENT: • Tufted fabrics: process of punching a first component loops of yarns, through a second component a woven/nonwoven backing material.• Fabrics: faster than pile carpet construction, does not require such highly skilled craftspersons, and requires less expensive equipment to manufacture.• Ancient technique for warm garments• Not necessarily inferior in quality, depends on fibers/yarns/backing material used.• Lace: individual yarns are joined into decorative patterns• Macramé: looping and knotting yarns• Variation of making nets, but variation of closed/knotted areas are emphasized• Popular in 70s and 80s• Usually wall hangings• Embroidery: Not for constructing, but decorating• 2 comoponents: fabric base & yarn that decorates it• Quilted Fabrics• 3 components at least: filling material (cotton batting, wool, down), sandwiched between 2 or more layers of decorative outer fabric•

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FSU CTE 1401C - Chapter 18: Knits

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