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Chapter 18: KnitsKnow knitting terminologyStitchEach loop in a knit fabricCourseRows of loops across width of fabricWaleColumns of loops across length of fabricGaugeNumber of stitches per inch across the width of the fabricEx. 10 stitches across the width; its gauge is 1/10Stitch densityNumber of stitches (loops) per square inchMultiply course and wales (rows and columns of stitches)Know the difference between weft knitting and warp knitting.Weft knittingKnits in which the yarns interlace crosswise (horizontal direction)Ex. Jersey, rib, purl, missed, fleece jerseyEx. Filling knitsWarp knittingKnits in which the yarns interlace in a vertical directionEx. Tricot, raschelBe able to recognize diagrams of both!!Know two basic weft knitting stitches (knit and purl)KnitMake a garment by interlocking rows of loops called stitchesAs each row progresses a new loop is pulled through an existing loopThe active stitches are hld on a needle until another loop can be passed through temPurlFilling knit loops go behind the loop above itHigh crosswise and lengthwise stretchSmall quantities of fabric made in purl knitHigh crosswise and lengthwise stretchBasically to knit with a reverse stitchhow can they can be combined?Rib stitching is how they can be combinedLengthwise ribs formed by wales alternating on face and back of fabricMade by alternating knit and purl stitchesGreater elasticity in the width than lengthStable: does not curl or stretchOften used for cuffs and necklinesKnow knitted fabrics structures:JerseyAll of the loops look the same and are meshed in the same mannerWales show on the face and the courses show on the backMost easily distorted of all knitsEdges curlPurlFilling knit loops go behind the loop above itHigh crosswise and lengthwise stretchSmall quantities of fabric made in purl knitHigh crosswise and lengthwise stretchRibLengthwise ribs formed by wales alternating on face and back of fabricMade by alternating knit and purl stitchesGreater elasticity in the width than lengthStable: does not curl or stretchOften used for cuffs and necklinesJacquardA fabric made on a loop with such a device with an intricate variegated patternThe device facilitates the weaving of figured and brocaded fabricsMissed StitchIn order to create a design effect, a stitch may be missed in a regular patternKnow how fake fur and pile knits are madeSliver knit pileLoose fiber from sliver gets knitted into back ground fabric which is often olefinSliver:a continuous strand of loosely assembled fibers that is fairly uniform and without twistKnow the two types of warp knitTricotDoesn’t ravel, can curlAlmost no stretch in lengthwise directionTechnical face:looks like jersey knitTechnical back:crosswise >>> lines often more smooth than facetechnical back often used as right side because its smoother for printingCrosswise ribs on back of the fabricFabric made:RaschelAny weight or thicknessPillar and inlay effect is a common featureColumns of loops are connected by inlaid yarns traversing from column to column up the fabricFabric made:Anything from lace to carpetKnow how the fibers for nonwovens are put in position:Dry formingWet formingKnow examples of the means for bonding (consolidating) the fibersMechanicalNeedle-punchingThe web is fed into a machine with bed of barbed needlesNeedles move in and out of web, entangling fibersSpun-lacingHigh speed jets of water hitting fibrous web bind fibers together by causing them to knot or curl around each otherStitch-bondingNot on examThermalThermoplastic fibers may be bonded by heatApplication of heat causes the fusing together of heat sensitive fibersHeat may be applied in a pattern to provide sufficient bonding for durability and allow greater flexibility and softnessSpun-bondingFilaments are blown onto a moving belt where they form a webAs the still hot and partially molten filaments touch, they bondStrongFilament fibers are not easily tornUses: carpet backing, apparel interlining, geo-textilesChemicalApplying an adhesive material to the web and then setting the adhesiveGlues the fibers togetherSolventA method of making nonwoven fabrics in which a solvent is used to soften the fiber surfaces in a web or batt hence cause bondingKnow some durable and non-durable uses for nonwovensDurableMulti useGeo-textilesImitation furUpholstery backingWall covering backingInterfacingDisposableThrown away after one useDiapersTea bagsExamination gownsWipesDental bibsKnow that felt was the earliest non-woven made (mechanically bonded)Chapter 20: Other Fabric Construction MethodsKnow the basic compound or multicomponent fabrics and how they are made:Basic compoundStitch bonded fabricsFiber webs are stitched through to hold the fibers togetherOne component is a fiber web, yarns or preformed fabricThe other is a series of stitches thathold it togetherWarp and filling yarns laid loosely, one over the otherThird set of yarns stitches the warp and weft yarns together (less expensive than weaving)Used for mechanically bonding nonwovensMulti component fabricsTufted fabricsA type of textile weaving in which a thread is inserted on a primary baseIt is an ancient technique for making warm garments especially mittensAfter the knitting is done, short u shaped loops of extra yarn are introduced through the fabric from the outside so that their ends point inwardsEmbroideryTwo components: fabric base; yarn that decorates itQuilted Fabrics3 parts: filling material (batting), two layers of decorative outer fabricprovides good thermal insulation because inner layer traps airLaminated/BondedBondedFace fabric is joined to a backing fabric with an adhesive that doesn’t add much thicknessLaminatedFace fabric joined to a continuous sheet material in such a way that identity of SM is retainedMay or may not be joined on back with another fabricFlocked FabricsShort fibers are adhered to surface of fabric to give illusion of pile fabricAdhesive used on base fabricFlock is applied mechanically or electrostaticallyCoated FabricsFabrics coated with thin polymer filmsProvide protection from water, chemicals, weatherSimulate leather or other materialsUltrasuedeComposed of polyester microfibersNonwoven web is mechanically bonded by needle punching or by hydroentanglingNote that quilting and embroidery can be done by hand, and have been done for hundreds of years.Chapter 22: ColorWhat three things are required for color to be perceived?A light sourceAn objectAn observerWhat are the some of the problems with colors

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FSU CTE 1401C - Exam 3 Study Guide

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