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CTE 1401 Final Exam Study Guide Textile Printing Chapter 23 1 What is textile printing a Dyeing a localized area to produce a pattern or design 2 What are the printing methods we learned in class How are they different from each other textile yarn or fabric a Direct Creation of a colored design by applying a dye or pigment directly to a i Usually has prominent color on the front less on the back ii Block printing mordant printing blotch printing overprinting b Resist A substance coats fabric in designated areas and prevents fabric from warp printing absorbing dye in those areas i Batik uses wax to prevent dye from absorbing in certain areas ii Batik tie dye ikat c Discharge Piece dyed fabrics printed with a discharge paste that removes d Heat transfer printing Dyes are printed onto a paper base then transferred color from specified areas of fabric from the paper to the fabric 3 What is blotch printing How is it different from overprinting How can you tell which was done the fabric a Blotch printing Both a colored background design motifs are printed onto i Made on a rotary screen printing machine or roller printing machine b Overprinting Printing over a piece dyed fabric i Pigment is not absorbed by the fibers but rather remains on the surface c You can tell which was done by looking at the back of the fabric A fabric that was overprinted will not have any designs on the back but a fabric that was blotch printed will have the design showing through the back 4 What is warp printing How does it differ from true ikat a Warp printing Warp yarns are printed before they re woven into a fabric b c They re different because when a fabric is warp printed all of the warp yarns Ikat selected sections of warp yarns are dyed by resist method are printed rather than ikat where only select warp yarns are dyed 5 How is screen printing done How is it different from roller printing a Screen printing Color is applied to a fabric using a screen Parts of the screen that are not to be dyed are covered with wax to keep dye from touching certain parts of a fabric b Roller printing Designs are printed on engraved rollers usually very small designs 6 What is devore burn out What type of fabric must it be used on a Burn out Produces designs on blend fabrics when a pattern is printed with an agent that will dissolve destroy one of the fibers in the blend i Works best with polyester cotton and polyester wool ii Polyester is the fiber that usually gets dissolved destroyed Physical Mechanical Finishes Chapter 24 7 What is the difference between aesthetic functional finishes a Aesthetic finishes Finishes that change the appearance hand and or texture of a material b Functional finishes Finishes that improve the performance in resisting a challenge such as flames dirt moths or water 8 How are finishes classified based on how long they remain in or on a fabric a Permanent Lasts the lifetime of the fabric usually permanently set in the b Durable Usually have a certain lifespan Involves resin chemical or c Temporary Removed after one or two launderings dry cleanings product mechanical treatments i Ex starch finish 9 What types of fibers can be heat set permanently a Synthetic fibers 10 How can a durable finish be applied to a natural fiber a By resin chemical or mechanical treatments 11 Are there types of finishes that can be applied at home by the consumer a Yes 12 What is a calender Schreiner calender Friction calender Embossing calender a Calender A mechanical finish that passes fabrics between a series of two or more rollers Purpose is to smooth fabric or create interesting surface effects b Schreiner calender Produces fabrics with soft luster soft hand One calender rolls embossed with 250 fine diagonal lines per inch Flattens the yarns i Ex damask cotton sateen c Friction calender Produces fabrics that have highly glazed or polished surface such as chintz or polished cotton Before fabric is passed through calender cloth is saturated with starch or resin Fabric is then dried slightly fed into machine where a rapidly moving heated roller polishes the surface of the more slowly moving fabric d Embossing Pressing a pattern onto fabrics Fabric calender has raised and lowered designs engraved on it 13 How is fabric polished glazed or cired a With a friction calender see above 14 What is moir a Fabrics with a watered or clouded appearance Two lengths of the same fabric places slightly off grain Enormous pressure by smooth moir rollers 15 How can embossing be made permanent a If it s printed on thermoplastic fibers 16 What is brushing napping a Brushing Fabrics made by staple fibers may be brushed to remove loose fiber from fabric surface b Napping Fiber ends are brushed up onto fabric surface to achieve a deeper pile Usually made from fibers with low twist yarns A machine with hook like projections catches fibers pulls them to the fabric surface 17 What is dimensional stability in fabric a The ability of a fiber or yarn to withstand shrinking or stretching 18 What is fulling of wool a In the processing of wool or animal hair fabrics treatment with moisture heat soap pressure that causes yarns to shrink lie closer together give the fabric more dense structure 19 How is fulled wool different from felt a In felt the fibers aren t as close together and all the fibers are matted and in fulled wool the fibers are shrunken and are close together Chemical Finishes Chapter 25 20 What are some examples of functional finishes a Waterproof flameproof soil stain repellant etc 21 What is the difference between resistant repellant proof a Resistant Slows down the process whether it s burning wetting etc but it doesn t completely stop the process b Proof Completely blocks the process such as burning wetting etc 22 What are some of the advantages disadvantages of wrinkle resistant finishes a Advantages Fabric returns to unwrinkled position quickly b Disadvantages The finishing process cased problems with the durability of the garments piling abrasion yellowing 23 How do fabric softeners work How can they also reduce static What are some of the disadvantages of using them a Fabric softeners Chemical compounds are used to allow a certain amount of slippage between yarns fibers to create a more supple smooth pleasant feeling fabric b Softening fabric makes it more hydrophilic which means it absorbs moisture more easily thus being more static resistant c The softening finish is not very durable 24 Why are there more regulations about

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