FSU CTE 1401C - Textile Printing – Chapter 23

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Textile Printing – Chapter 23Physical & Mechanical Finishes – Chapter 24Chemical Finishes – Chapter 25Textiles & the Environment – Chapter 27Classification of FibersCTE 1401 Final Exam Study GuideTextile Printing – Chapter 231. What is textile printing?a. Dyeing a localized area to produce a pattern or design2. What are the printing methods we learned in class? How are they different from each other?a. Direct: Creation of a colored design by applying a dye or pigment directly to atextile yarn or fabrici. Usually has prominent color on the front & less on the backii. Block printing, mordant printing, blotch printing, overprinting, & warp printingb. Resist: A substance coats fabric in designated areas and prevents fabric from absorbing dye in those areas.i. Batik uses wax to prevent dye from absorbing in certain areasii. Batik, tie-dye, ikatc. Discharge: Piece-dyed fabrics printed with a discharge paste that removes color from specified areas of fabricd. Heat transfer printing: Dyes are printed onto a paper base & then transferredfrom the paper to the fabric3. What is blotch printing? How is it different from overprinting? How can you tell which was done?a. Blotch printing: Both a colored background & design motifs are printed onto the fabric. i. Made on a rotary screen printing machine or roller printing machineb. Overprinting: Printing over a piece-dyed fabric.i. Pigment is not absorbed by the fibers but rather remains on the surface.c. You can tell which was done by looking at the back of the fabric. A fabric that was overprinted will not have any designs on the back, but a fabric that was blotch printed will have the design showing through the back.4. What is warp printing? How does it differ from true ikat?a. Warp printing: Warp yarns are printed before they’re woven into a fabricb. Ikat: selected sections of warp yarns are dyed by resist method.c. They’re different because when a fabric is warp printed, all of the warp yarnsare printed rather than ikat where only select warp yarns are dyed.5. How is screen printing done? How is it different from roller printing?a. Screen printing: Color is applied to a fabric using a screen. Parts of the screenthat are not to be dyed are covered with wax to keep dye from touching certain parts of a fabric.b. Roller printing: Designs are printed on engraved rollers, usually very small designs.6. What is devore (burn out)? What type of fabric must it be used on?a. Burn out: Produces designs on blend fabrics when a pattern is printed with an agent that will dissolve/destroy one of the fibers in the blend.i. Works best with polyester/cotton and polyester/woolii. Polyester is the fiber that usually gets dissolved/destroyedPhysical & Mechanical Finishes – Chapter 247. What is the difference between aesthetic & functional finishes?a. Aesthetic finishes: Finishes that change the appearance, hand, and/or textureof a materialb. Functional finishes: Finishes that improve the performance in resisting a challenge such as flames, dirt, moths, or water8. How are finishes classified based on how long they remain in or on a fabric?a. Permanent: Lasts the lifetime of the fabric, usually permanently set in the productb. Durable: Usually have a certain lifespan. Involves resin (chemical) or mechanical treatmentsc. Temporary: Removed after one or two launderings/dry cleaningsi. Ex: starch finish9. What types of fibers can be heat-set permanently?a. Synthetic fibers10. How can a durable finish be applied to a natural fiber?a. By resin/chemical or mechanical treatments11. Are there types of finishes that can be applied at home by the consumer?a. Yes.12. What is a calender? Schreiner calender? Friction calender? Embossing calender?a. Calender: A mechanical finish that passes fabrics between a series of two or more rollers. Purpose is to smooth fabric or create interesting surface effectsb. Schreiner calender: Produces fabrics with soft luster & soft hand. One calender rolls embossed with 250 fine diagonal lines per inch. Flattens the yarns.i. Ex: damask, cotton sateenc. Friction calender: Produces fabrics that have highly glazed or polished surface, such as chintz or polished cotton. Before fabric is passed through calender, cloth is saturated with starch or resin. Fabric is then dried slightly & fed into machine where a rapidly moving, heated roller polishes the surface of the more slowly moving fabric.d. Embossing: Pressing a pattern onto fabrics. Fabric calender has raised and lowered designs engraved on it.13. How is fabric polished, glazed, or cired?a. With a friction calender (see above)14. What is moiré? a. Fabrics with a watered or clouded appearance. Two lengths of the same fabric places slightly off grain. Enormous pressure by smooth moiré rollers.15. How can embossing be made permanent?a. If it’s printed on thermoplastic fibers.16. What is brushing & napping?a. Brushing: Fabrics made by staple fibers may be brushed to remove loose fiber from fabric surface.b. Napping: Fiber ends are brushed up onto fabric surface to achieve a deeper pile. Usually made from fibers with low-twist yarns. A machine with hook-like projections catches fibers & pulls them to the fabric surface.17. What is dimensional stability in fabric? a. The ability of a fiber or yarn to withstand shrinking or stretching18. What is fulling of wool?a. In the processing of wool or animal hair fabrics, treatment with moisture, heat, soap, & pressure that causes yarns to shrink, lie closer together, & give the fabric more dense structure.19. How is fulled wool different from felt?a. In felt, the fibers aren’t as close together and all the fibers are matted and in fulled wool the fibers are shrunken and are close together.Chemical Finishes – Chapter 2520. What are some examples of functional finishes?a. Waterproof, flameproof, soil/stain repellant, etc.21. What is the difference between resistant (repellant) & proof?a. Resistant: Slows down the process whether it’s burning, wetting, etc. but it doesn’t completely stop the processb. Proof: Completely blocks the process such as burning, wetting, etc. 22. What are some of the advantages/disadvantages of wrinkle resistant finishes?a. Advantages: Fabric returns to unwrinkled position quicklyb. Disadvantages: The finishing process cased problems with the durability of the garments (piling, abrasion, yellowing)23. How do fabric softeners work? How can they also reduce static? What are some of the disadvantages of using

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